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Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution


Feild, TS and Brodribb, TJ and Iglesias, A and Chatelet, DS and Baresch, A and Upchurch, GR and Gomez, B and Mohr, BAR and Coiffard, C and Kvacek, J and Jaramillo, C, Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution, National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America. Proceedings, 180, (20) pp. 8363-8366. ISSN 0027-8424 (2011) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences

DOI: doi:10.1073/pnas.1014456108


The flowering plants that dominate modern vegetation possess leaf gas exchange potentials that far exceed those of all other living or extinct plants. The great divide in maximal ability to exchange CO2 for water between leaves of nonangiosperms and angiosperms forms the mechanistic foundation for speculation about how angiosperms drove sweeping ecological and biogeochemical change during the Cretaceous. However, there is no empirical evidence that angiosperms evolved highly photosynthetically active leaves during the Cretaceous. Using vein density (DV) measurements of fossil angiosperm leaves, we show that the leaf hydraulic capacities of angiosperms escalated severalfold during the Cretaceous. During the first 30 million years of angiosperm leaf evolution, angiosperm leaves exhibited uniformly low vein DV that overlapped the DV range of dominant Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms. Fossil angiosperm vein densities reveal a subsequent biphasic increase in DV. During the first mid-Cretaceous surge, angiosperm DV first surpassed the upper bound of DV limits for nonangiosperms. However, the upper limits of DV typical of modern megathermal rainforest trees first appear during a second wave of increased DV during the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. Thus, our findings provide fossil evidence for the hypothesis that significant ecosystem change brought about by angiosperms lagged behind the Early Cretaceous taxonomic diversification of angiosperms.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:angiosperm evolution | plant evolution | transpiration | tropical rainforest | venation
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Evolutionary biology
Research Field:Biological adaptation
Objective Division:Environmental Management
Objective Group:Terrestrial systems and management
Objective Field:Terrestrial biodiversity
UTAS Author:Brodribb, TJ (Professor Tim Brodribb)
ID Code:71958
Year Published:2011
Web of Science® Times Cited:152
Deposited By:Plant Science
Deposited On:2011-08-16
Last Modified:2017-11-01
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