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Uptake, distribution and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in Australian greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata


Dowsett, N and Hallegraeff, GM and van Ruth, P and van Ginkel, R and McNabb, P and Hay, B and O'Connor, W and Kiermeier, A and Deveney, M and McLeod, C, Uptake, distribution and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in Australian greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, Toxicon: An Interdisciplinary Journal on The Toxins Derived From Animals, Plants and Microorganisms, 58, (1) pp. 101-111. ISSN 0041-0101 (2011) [Refereed Article]

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DOI: doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.05.010


Farmed greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata were fed commercial seaweed-based food pellets or feed pellets supplemented with 8 10(5)Alexandrium minutum dinoflagellate cells g(-1) (containing 12 3.0 g STX-equivalent 100 g(-1), which was mainly GTX-1,4) every second day for 50 days. Exposure of abalone to PST supplemented feed for 50 days did not affect behaviour or survival but saw accumulation of up to 1.6 g STX-equivalent 100 g(-1) in the abalone foot tissue (muscle, mouth without oesophagus and epipodial fringe), which is 50 times lower than the maximum permissible limit (80 g 100 g(-1) tissue) for PSTs in molluscan shellfish. The PST levels in the foot were reduced to 0.48 g STX-equivalent 100 g(-1) after scrubbing and removal of the pigment surrounding the epithelium of the epipodial fringe (confirmed by both HPLC and LC-MS/MS). Thus, scrubbing the epipodial fringe, a common procedure during commercial abalone canning, reduced PST levels by 70%. Only trace levels of PSTs were detected in the viscera (stomach, gut, heart, gonad, gills and mantle) of the abalone. A toxin reduction of approximately 73% was observed in STX-contaminated abalone held in clean water and fed uncontaminated food over 50 days. The low level of PST uptake when abalone were exposed to high numbers of A. minutum cells over a prolonged period may indicate a low risk of PSP poisoning to humans from the consumption of H. laevigata that has been exposed to a bloom of potentially toxic A. minutum in Australia. Further research is required to establish if non-dietary accumulation can result in significant levels of PSTs in abalone.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning, Epipodial Fringe, HPLC, LC-MS/MS, Gastropod
Research Division:Agricultural, Veterinary and Food Sciences
Research Group:Fisheries sciences
Research Field:Fisheries management
Objective Division:Animal Production and Animal Primary Products
Objective Group:Fisheries - aquaculture
Objective Field:Aquaculture molluscs (excl. oysters)
UTAS Author:Hallegraeff, GM (Professor Gustaaf Hallegraeff)
ID Code:71154
Year Published:2011
Web of Science® Times Cited:11
Deposited By:IMAS Research and Education Centre
Deposited On:2011-07-08
Last Modified:2017-11-03

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