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Ichthyotoxicity of four species of gymnodinioid dinoflagellates (Kareniaceae, Dinophyta) and purified karlotoxins to larval sheepshead minnow


Mooney, B and Hallegraeff, GM and Place, AR, Ichthyotoxicity of four species of gymnodinioid dinoflagellates (Kareniaceae, Dinophyta) and purified karlotoxins to larval sheepshead minnow, Harmful Algae, 9, (6) pp. 557-562. ISSN 1568-9883 (2010) [Refereed Article]

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DOI: doi:10.1016/j.hal.2010.04.005


Two species of Kareniaceae, Karlodinium veneficum (Swan and Huon River isolates) and Karlodinium conicum, and their respective purified karlotoxins (KmTx), were investigated for ichthyotoxicity on larval sheepshead minnow. Two non-karlotoxin producing species, Karenia mikimotoi and Karlodinium ballantinum were also tested. Algal treatments included live and lysed cells (homogenized and CuSO4 treated) with fishmortalities observed from lysed Ka. veneficum and Ka. conicum but none observed from K. mikimotoi and Ka. ballantinum. The variance in ichthyotoxicity between live and lysed cells of Ka. veneficum(Swan and Huon River) and Ka. conicum(Southern Ocean) confirm that toxin is cell bound and ichthyotoxicity increases upon lysis. Ichthyotoxic blooms of Ka. veneficum in situ in the Swan River, Western Australia and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA are unrelated to algal cell density as mortality was observed with low densities. In laboratory treatments, no fish mortalities were observed upon exposure to live intact cells of all four species at algal concentrations up to 2.5  105 cells/mL in replete nutrient growth conditions. Lysed low density (3  104 cells/mL) Ka. veneficum (Swan and Huon River) grown under P-limited nutrients caused quicker fish mortality than those cultured in replete nutrient conditions. Pure toxin isolated from Ka. veneficum (Swan and Huon River) and Ka. conicum (Southern Ocean) were toxic to sheepshead minnow larvae, with the lethal dose lowest for KmHuonTx 2 (508.2 ng/ mL), followed by KmSwanTx 2-1 (563.2 ng/mL), and KmconicumTx (762.4 ng/mL).

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:Dinoflagellate, Ichthyotoxicity, Kareniaceae, Karlotoxin
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Plant biology
Research Field:Phycology (incl. marine grasses)
Objective Division:Environmental Management
Objective Group:Coastal and estuarine systems and management
Objective Field:Coastal or estuarine biodiversity
UTAS Author:Mooney, B (Mr Ben Mooney)
UTAS Author:Hallegraeff, GM (Professor Gustaaf Hallegraeff)
ID Code:67973
Year Published:2010
Web of Science® Times Cited:26
Deposited By:IMAS Research and Education Centre
Deposited On:2011-03-08
Last Modified:2011-10-06

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