Type of volcanoes hosting the massive sulfide deposits of the Iberian Pyrite Belt
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Rosa, CJ and McPhie, J and Relvas, JMRS, Type of volcanoes hosting the massive sulfide deposits of the Iberian Pyrite Belt, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research: An International Journal on The Geophysical, Geochemical, Petrological and Economic Aspects of Geothermal and Volcanological Research, 194, (4) pp. 107-126. ISSN 0377-0273 (2010) [Refereed Article]
The Volcanic Sedimentary Complex (VSC) of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) in southern Portugal and Spain, comprises an Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous submarine succession with a variety of felsic volcanic lithofacies. The architecture of the felsic volcanic centres includes felsic lavas/domes, pyroclastic units, intrusions and minor mafic units that define lava-cryptodome-pumice cone volcanoes. The diversity of volcanic lithofacies recognized in different areas of the IPB mainly reflects variations in proximity to source, but also differences in the eruption style. The IPB volcanoes are intrabasinal, range in length from 2 km to > 8 km and their thickest sections vary from ~ 400 m to > 800 m These volcanoes are dominated by felsic lavas/domes that occur at several stratigraphic positions within the volcanic centre, however the pyroclastic units are also abundant and are spatially related to the lavas/domes. The intrusions are minor, and define cryptodomes and partly-extrusive cryptodomes. The hydrothermal systems that formed the Neves Corvo and Lousal massive sulfide ore deposits are associated with effusive units of felsic volcanic centres. At Neves Corvo, the massive sulfide orebodies are associated to rhyolitic lavas that overlie relatively thick fiamme-rich pyroclastic unit. In several other locations within the belt, pyroclastic units contain sulfide clasts that may have been derived from yet to be discovered coeval massive sulfide deposits at or below the sea floor, which enhances the exploration potential of these pyroclastic units and demonstrates the need for volcanic facies analysis in exploration. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
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