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Skipping breakfast: longitudinal associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study

Citation

Smith, KJ and Gall, SL and McNaughton, SA and Blizzard, L and Dwyer, T and Venn, AJ, Skipping breakfast: longitudinal associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 92, (6) pp. 1316-1325. ISSN 0002-9165 (2010) [Refereed Article]


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Copyright Statement

Copyright 2010 American Society for Nutrition

Official URL: http://www.ajcn.org/content/92/6/1316

DOI: doi:10.3945/ajcn.2010.30101

Abstract

Background: The long-term effects of skipping breakfast on cardiometabolic health are not well understood. Objective: The objective was to examine longitudinal associations of breakfast skipping in childhood and adulthood with cardiometabolic risk factors in adulthood. Design: In 1985, a national sample of 915-y-old Australian children reported whether they usually ate breakfast before school. During follow-up in 20042006, 2184 participants (2636 y of age) completed a meal-frequency chart for the previous day. Skipping breakfast was defined as not eating between 0600 and 0900. Participants were classified into 4 groups: skipped breakfast in neither childhood nor adulthood (n = 1359), skipped breakfast only in childhood (n = 224), skipped breakfast only in adulthood (n = 515), and skipped breakfast in both childhood and adulthood (n = 86). Diet quality was assessed, waist circumference was measured, and blood samples were taken after a 12-h fast (n = 1730). Differences in mean waist circumference and blood glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations were calculated by linear regression. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, participants who skipped breakfast in both childhood and adulthood had a larger waist circumference (mean difference: 4.63 cm; 95% CI: 1.72, 7.53 cm) and higher fasting insulin (mean difference: 2.02 mU/L; 95% CI: 0.75, 3.29 mU/L), total cholesterol (mean difference: 0.40 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.68 mmol/L), and LDL cholesterol (mean difference: 0.40 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.64 mmol/L) concentrations than did those who ate breakfast at both time points. Additional adjustments for diet quality and waist circumference attenuated the associations with cardiometabolic variables, but the differences remained significant. Conclusions: Skipping breakfast over a long period may have detrimental effects on cardiometabolic health. Promoting the benefits of eating breakfast could be a simple and important public health message.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Research Division:Medical and Health Sciences
Research Group:Public Health and Health Services
Research Field:Epidemiology
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health)
Objective Field:Nutrition
Author:Smith, KJ (Dr Kylie Smith)
Author:Gall, SL (Dr Seana Gall)
Author:Blizzard, L (Professor Leigh Blizzard)
Author:Venn, AJ (Professor Alison Venn)
ID Code:65897
Year Published:2010
Web of Science® Times Cited:129
Deposited By:Menzies Institute for Medical Research
Deposited On:2010-12-08
Last Modified:2011-05-02
Downloads:0

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