Prediction of the effects of methanol and competing ion concentration on retention in the ion chromatographic separation of anionic and cationic pharmaceutically related compounds
Zakaria, P and Dicinoski, G and Hanna-Brown, M and Haddad, PR, Prediction of the effects of methanol and competing ion concentration on retention in the ion chromatographic separation of anionic and cationic pharmaceutically related compounds, Journal of Chromatography A, 1217, (39) pp. 6069-6076. ISSN 0021-9673 (2010) [Refereed Article]
The mixed-mode separation of a selection of anionic and cationic pharmaceutically related compounds is studied using ion-exchange columns and eluents consisting of ionic salts (potassium hydroxide or methanesulfonic acid) and an organic modifier (methanol). All separations were performed using commercially available ion-exchange columns and an ion chromatography instrument modified to allow introduction of methanol into the eluent without introducing compatibility problems with the eluent generation system. Isocratic retention prediction was undertaken over the two-dimensional space defined by the concentration of the competing ion and the percentage of organic modifier in the eluent. Various empirical models describing the observed relationships between analyte retention and both the competing ion concentration and the percentage of methanol were evaluated, with the resultant model being capable of describing the separation, including peak width, over the entire experimental space based on six initial experiments. Average errors in retention time and peak width were less than 6% and 27%, respectively, for runs taken from both inside and outside of the experimental space. Separations performed under methanol gradient conditions (while holding the competing ion concentration constant) were also modelled. The observed effect on retention of varying the methanol composition differed between analytes with several analytes exhibiting increased retention with increased percentage methanol in the eluent. An empirical model was derived based on integration of the observed tR vs. %methanol plot for each analyte. A combination of the isocratic and gradient models allowed for the prediction of retention time using multi-step methanol gradient profiles with average errors in predicted retention times being less than 4% over 30 different 2- and 3-step gradient profiles for anions and less than 6% over 14 different 2- and 3-step gradient profiles for cations. A modified peak compression model was used to estimate peak widths under these conditions. This provided adequate width prediction with the average error between observed and predicted peak widths being less than 15% for 40 1-, 2- and 3-step gradients for anions and less than 13% over 14 1-, 2- and 3-step gradients for cations.