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Engaging community pharmacists in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: protocol for the Pharmacist Assessment of Adherence, Risk and Treatment in Cardiovascular Disease (PAART CVD) pilot study


Mc Namara, KP and George, J and O'Reilly, SL and Jackson, SL and Peterson, GM and Howarth, H and Bailey, MJ and Duncan, G and Trinder, P and Morabito, E and Finch, J and Bunker, S and Janus, E and Emery, J and Dunbar, JA, Engaging community pharmacists in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: protocol for the Pharmacist Assessment of Adherence, Risk and Treatment in Cardiovascular Disease (PAART CVD) pilot study, BMC Health Services Research, 10, (264) EJ ISSN 1472-6963 (2010) [Contribution to Refereed Journal]


Copyright Statement

© 2010 Mc Namara et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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DOI: doi:10.1186/1472-6963-10-264


Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally. Community pharmacist intervention studies have demonstrated clinical effectiveness for improving several leading individual CVD risk factors. Primary prevention strategies increasingly emphasise the need for consideration of overall cardiovascular risk and concurrent management of multiple risk factors. It is therefore important to demonstrate the feasibility of multiple risk factor management by community pharmacists to ensure continued currency of their role. Methods/Design: This study will be a longitudinal pre- and post-test pilot study with a single cohort of up to 100 patients in ten pharmacies. Patients aged 50-74 years with no history of heart disease or diabetes, and taking antihypertensive or lipid-lowering medicines, will be approached for participation. Assessment of cardiovascular risk, medicines use and health behaviours will be undertaken by a research assistant at baseline and following the intervention (6 months). Validated interview scales will be used where available. Baseline data will be used by accredited medicines management pharmacists to generate a report for the treating community pharmacist. This report will highlight individual patientsí overall CVD risk and individual risk factors, as well as identifying modifiable health behaviours for risk improvement and suggesting treatment and behavioural goals. The treating community pharmacist will use this information to finalise and implement a treatment plan in conjunction with the patient and their doctor. Community pharmacists will facilitate patient improvements in lifestyle, medicines adherence, and medicines management over the course of five counselling sessions with monthly intervals. The primary outcome will be the change to average overall cardiovascular risk, assessed using the Framingham risk equation. Discussion: This study will assess the feasibility of implementing holistic primary CVD prevention programs into community pharmacy, one of the most accessible health services in most developed countries. Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Number: ACTRN12609000677202

Item Details

Item Type:Contribution to Refereed Journal
Keywords:cardiovascular disease, pharmacists, primary prevention, treatment, protocol, assessment, adherence, pilot study
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Pharmacology and pharmaceutical sciences
Research Field:Pharmacology and pharmaceutical sciences not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical health
Objective Field:Clinical health not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Jackson, SL (Dr Shane Jackson)
UTAS Author:Peterson, GM (Professor Gregory Peterson)
UTAS Author:Howarth, H (Ms Helen Howarth)
UTAS Author:Finch, J (Mrs Jill Finch)
ID Code:64889
Year Published:2010
Web of Science® Times Cited:18
Deposited By:Pharmacy
Deposited On:2010-09-13
Last Modified:2011-06-10
Downloads:390 View Download Statistics

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