Engaging community pharmacists in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: protocol for the Pharmacist Assessment of Adherence, Risk and Treatment in Cardiovascular Disease (PAART CVD) pilot study
Mc Namara, KP and George, J and O'Reilly, SL and Jackson, SL and Peterson, GM and Howarth, H and Bailey, MJ and Duncan, G and Trinder, P and Morabito, E and Finch, J and Bunker, S and Janus, E and Emery, J and Dunbar, JA, Engaging community pharmacists in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: protocol for the Pharmacist Assessment of Adherence, Risk and Treatment in Cardiovascular Disease (PAART CVD) pilot study, BMC Health Services Research, 10, (264) EJ ISSN 1472-6963 (2010) [Contribution to Refereed Journal]
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally. Community pharmacist
intervention studies have demonstrated clinical effectiveness for improving several leading individual CVD risk
factors. Primary prevention strategies increasingly emphasise the need for consideration of overall cardiovascular
risk and concurrent management of multiple risk factors. It is therefore important to demonstrate the feasibility of
multiple risk factor management by community pharmacists to ensure continued currency of their role.
Methods/Design: This study will be a longitudinal pre- and post-test pilot study with a single cohort of up to 100
patients in ten pharmacies. Patients aged 50-74 years with no history of heart disease or diabetes, and taking
antihypertensive or lipid-lowering medicines, will be approached for participation. Assessment of cardiovascular risk,
medicines use and health behaviours will be undertaken by a research assistant at baseline and following the
intervention (6 months). Validated interview scales will be used where available. Baseline data will be used by
accredited medicines management pharmacists to generate a report for the treating community pharmacist. This
report will highlight individual patientsí overall CVD risk and individual risk factors, as well as identifying modifiable
health behaviours for risk improvement and suggesting treatment and behavioural goals. The treating community
pharmacist will use this information to finalise and implement a treatment plan in conjunction with the patient
and their doctor. Community pharmacists will facilitate patient improvements in lifestyle, medicines adherence, and
medicines management over the course of five counselling sessions with monthly intervals. The primary outcome
will be the change to average overall cardiovascular risk, assessed using the Framingham risk equation.
Discussion: This study will assess the feasibility of implementing holistic primary CVD prevention programs into
community pharmacy, one of the most accessible health services in most developed countries.
Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Number: ACTRN12609000677202
Contribution to Refereed Journal
cardiovascular disease, pharmacists, primary prevention, treatment, protocol, assessment, adherence, pilot study