Measurement of condensed tannins and dry matter in red grape homogenates using near infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares
Cozzolino, D and Cynkar, WU and Dambergs, RG and Mercurio, MD and Smith, PA, Measurement of condensed tannins and dry matter in red grape homogenates using near infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, (17) pp. 7631-7636. ISSN 0021-8561 (2008) [Refereed Article]
Samples (n = 620) of homogenized red grape berries were analyzed using a visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer (400-2500 nm) in reflectance. The spectra and the analytical data were used to develop partial least-squares calibrations to predict dry matter (DM) content and condensed tannins (CT) concentrations. The coefficient of determination in cross-validation and the standard error of cross-validation were 0.92 and 0.83% w/w for DM and 0.86 and 0.46 mg/g epicatechin equivalents for CT, respectively. The standard error in prediction was 1.34% w/w for DM and 0.89 mg/g epicatechin equivalents for CT, respectively. By implementing a NIR spectroscopy method to measure DM and CT in red grape homogenates, we have developed an approach that is suited to large-scale compositional analysis in commercial wine production facilities, as it enables the analysis of large numbers of samples needed to stream batches of fruit. From an economical point of view, the calibration models could be achieved with relatively small data sets. Thus, NIR offers a suitable and efficient tool for the simultaneous measurement of DM and CT in addition to other important parameters in red grape homogenates such as total anthocyanins, total soluble solids, and pH, with minimal sample preparation and low cost.