Antagonism of some cyclohexamine-based drug combinations used for chemical restraint of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina)
Woods, R and McLean, SR and Nicol, SC and Burton, H, Antagonism of some cyclohexamine-based drug combinations used for chemical restraint of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), Australian Veterinary Journal, 72, (5) pp. 165-171. ISSN 0005-0423 (1995) [Refereed Article]
SUMMARY This study examined the use of 4 antagonists of chemical restraint in mature female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) that were restrained with ketamine and diazepam, ketamine and xylazine, or tiletamine and zolazepam. The antagonists were: 4-aminopyridine, yohimbine, doxapram and sarmazenil. The effects of the antagonists on the animal's time to first movement forward and recovery, heart rate, respiratory rate and venous blood gas and pH values, and level of chemical restraint were recorded. Sarmazenil (1.0 mg/kg) and doxapram (5.0 mg/kg) partially antagonised 50:1 ketamine: diazepam (ketamine = 3.0 mg/kg, diazepam = 0.06 mg/kg) and tiletamine and zolazepam (tiletamine = 0.5 mg/kg, zolazepam = 0.5 mg/kg). However, the rapid recovery after low doses of anaesthetics means that antagonism is usually unnecessary, and it may increase the likelihood of shaking. Routine antagonism of ketamine and xylazine (ketamine = 3.0 mg/kg, xylazine = 0.5 mg/kg) is more useful given its usually delayed recovery time and potential for thermoregulatory problems. For this purpose yohimbine (0.06 mg/kg) offered advantages over doxapram in giving a smoother recovery with less aggression. 4-aminopyridine (0.2 mg/kg) prolonged chemical restraint by 100:1 ketamine: diazepam (ketamine = 3.0 mg/kg, diazepam = 0.03 mg/kg) and ketamine and xylazine, and should be contraindicated. Doxapram (5.0 mg/kg) was the most useful general antagonist for all groups of drugs but shaking was seen and a lower dose is recommended.