Identification of the most common problems by patients with ankylosing spondylitis using the international classification of functioning, disability and health
van Echteld, I and Cieza, A and Boonen, A and Stucki, G and Zochling, JM and Braun, J and van der Heijde, D, Identification of the most common problems by patients with ankylosing spondylitis using the international classification of functioning, disability and health, Journal of Rheumatology, 33, (12) pp. 2475-2483. ISSN 0315-162X (2006) [Refereed Article]
Objective. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) aims to classify functioning and health by a number of categories divided over 3 components: body functions and body structures, participation and activities, and environmental factors. We identified the common health problems of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) based on the ICF from the perspective of the patient. Methods. During structured interviews with the extended ICF checklist, trained assessors collected data from 111 patients with AS. ICF categories identified by more than 5% of the patients as at least mildly impaired or restricted were selected. Categories identified by less than 5% were removed. Additional impairments/restrictions reported by more than 5% of the patients, after the structured interviews and not yet included in the checklist, were added. Results. One hundred nineteen (72%) out of 165 categories of the extended ICF checklist were identified to be at least mildly impaired or restricted. Within each of the 4 components of the ICF, at least one-third of the categories were impaired or restricted for more than 50% of the patients. Thirty-nine (33%) categories were related to movement and mobility. Within the component "environmental factors" the categories "support of immediate family" and "health professionals" were the most important facilitators, "climate" was the most important barrier. Eight impairments were additionally mentioned as relevant. These were hierarchically lower levels of ICF categories previously included and they were added. Conclusion. One hundred twenty-seven ICF categories represent the comprehensive classification of functioning in AS from the patients' perspective. The results underscore the need to address the 4 ICF components when classifying functioning and to emphasize that functioning implies more than physical functioning.