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Survey for karlotoxin production in 15 species of gymnodinioid dinoflagellates (Kareniaceae, Dinophyta)1


Mooney, B and de Salas, MF and Hallegraeff, GM and Place, AR, Survey for karlotoxin production in 15 species of gymnodinioid dinoflagellates (Kareniaceae, Dinophyta)1, Journal of Phycology, 45, (1) pp. 164-175. ISSN 0022-3646 (2009) [Refereed Article]

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DOI: doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00630.x


Toxin analysis of 15 species of Kareniaceae revealed the presence of karlotoxin, KmTx 2, in only a single species (Karlodinium veneficum) but with variable activity in strains from the Swan (KmSwanTx 2-1, 2.1 pg cell)1; and KmSwanTx 2-2, 0.53 pg cell)1), Huon (KmHuonTx 2, 0.86 pg cell)1), and Derwent rivers (<0.001 pg cell)1) in Australia. A newly isolated Southern Ocean species, Karlodinium conicum, contained a novel poorly hemolytic karlotoxin analogue (KmconicumTx, 2.8 pg cell)1). The hemolytic potency (HD50%) of the Australian karlotoxins were as follows: KmSwanTx 2-1 (65.9 4.8 ng) and KmSwanTx 2-2 (63.4 3.7 ng), KmHuonTx 2 (343 4.9 ng), and KmconicumTx (>4,000 ng). Species from the closely related genera Takayama (T. helix, T. tasmanica, T. tuberculata), Karenia (K. asterichroma, K. brevis, K. mikimotoi, K. papilionacea, K. umbella), and Karlodinium (Ka. australe, Ka. antarcticum, Ka. ballantinum, Ka. corrugatum, Ka. decipiens) were all consistently negative for karlotoxin production. Brevetoxin (PbTx) was only detected in K. brevis, and hemolytic activity was only observed in Ka. veneficum strains.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:dinoflagellate; hemolytic; Kareniaceae; karlotoxin
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Plant biology
Research Field:Phycology (incl. marine grasses)
Objective Division:Environmental Management
Objective Group:Coastal and estuarine systems and management
Objective Field:Coastal and estuarine systems and management not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Mooney, B (Mr Ben Mooney)
UTAS Author:de Salas, MF (Dr Miguel de Salas)
UTAS Author:Hallegraeff, GM (Professor Gustaaf Hallegraeff)
ID Code:59942
Year Published:2009
Web of Science® Times Cited:32
Deposited By:Plant Science
Deposited On:2009-12-23
Last Modified:2010-05-21

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