Applications of IR in the wine and beer industry
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Cozzolino, D and Dambergs, RG, Applications of IR in the wine and beer industry, Infrared Spectroscopy for food quality, analysis and control, Academic Press, Dawen, S (ed), United States, pp. 377-399. ISBN 978-0-12-374136-3 (2009) [Research Book Chapter]
This chapter aims to present the application of infrared, both near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR), in different steps of wine, and beer production. The prediction of quality parameters in red grapes using NIR spectroscopy is usually conducted by scanning homogenized grape samples, whole grapes, or single berries using an NIR spectrophotometer. It has been reported that grape total anthocyanin concentration (color) is a good predictor of red wine composition and quality, and is widely used by the Australian wine industry. A large amount of the NIR work in the wine industry is focused on the measurement of ethanol. Ethanol has a strong NIR absorbance signal in alcoholic beverages, usually second only to water, but accuracy and robustness of calibrations can be limited by matrix variations, particularly variations in sugar concentration. The NIR can be used to measure several chemical parameters in wine such as volatile acidity, organic acids, malic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, reducing sugars, and sulfur dioxide. The use of NIR spectroscopy has also been reported to measure sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) in white and red wines Inline and online monitoring, and process control is seen as one of the potential strengths of NIR spectroscopy. Fermentation monitoring is another potential application of NIR spectroscopy in the brewing process. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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