Brine pool deposition for the Zn-Pb-Cu massive sulphide deposits of the Bathurst mining camp, New Brunswick, Canada. I. Comparisons with the Iberian pyrite belt
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Solomon, M, Brine pool deposition for the Zn-Pb-Cu massive sulphide deposits of the Bathurst mining camp, New Brunswick, Canada. I. Comparisons with the Iberian pyrite belt, Ore Geology Reviews, 33, (3-4) pp. 329-351. ISSN 0169-1368 (2008) [Refereed Article]
The Ordovician Zn-Pb-Cu massive sulphide ore deposits of the Bathurst mining camp share many features with those of the Devonian/Carboniferous Iberian pyrite belt, particularly the tendency to large size (tonnage and metal content); shape, as far as can be determined after allowing for deformation; metal content, particularly Fe/Cu, Pb/Zn and Sn; mineral assemblages (pyrite + arsenopyrite ± pyrrhotite and lack or rarity of sulphates); sulphide textures (particularly framboidal pyrite); lack of chimney structures and rubble mounds; irregular metal or mineral zoning; and the low degree of zone refining compared to Hokuroku ores. The major differences between the provinces are the lack of vent complexes and the presence of Sn-Cu ores in the Iberian pyrite belt. There are also similarities in the geological setting of the two camps: both lie within continental terranes undergoing arc-continent and continent-continent collision, and in each case massive sulphide mineralisation followed ophiolite obduction; the ore deposits are associated with bimodal volcanic rocks derived from MORB and continental crust and marine shales; and mineralisation was locally accompanied or followed by deposition of iron formations. Fluid inclusion data from veins in stockworks from at least six of the Iberian massive sulphide deposits point to sulphide deposition having taken place in basins containing mostly spent saline, ore-forming fluids (brine pools), and it is suggested that most of the major features of the Bathurst deposits can be explained by similar processes. The proposed model is largely independent of ocean sulphate and O 2 content, whereas low values of each are requisites for the current, spreading-plume model of sulphide deposition in the Bathurst camp. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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