Facies analyses and volcanic setting of the giant Neves Corvo massive sulfide deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal
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Rosa, CJ and McPhie, J and Relvas, JMRS and Pereira, Z and Oliveira, T and Pacheco, N, Facies analyses and volcanic setting of the giant Neves Corvo massive sulfide deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal, Mineralium Deposita, 43, (4) pp. 449-466. ISSN 0026-4598 (2008) [Refereed Article]
In the Iberian Pyrite Belt, volcanic rocks are relatively scarce, accounting for approximately only 25% of the geologic record, with the remaining 75% consisting of sedimentary units. This association is very clear in the host succession to the Neves Corvo massive sulfide deposit in Portugal. The Neves Corvo host succession comprises the products of explosive and effusive rhyolitic eruptions intercalated with mudstone that records a submarine below-wave-base environment and provides precise biostratigraphic age constraints. The first and second volcanic events involved eruptions at local intrabasinal vents. The first event generated thick beds of fiamme breccia that are late Famennian in age. The fiamme were originally pumice clasts produced by explosive eruptions and were subsequently compacted. The second event was the late Strunian (latest Famennian) effusion of rhyolitic lava that was pervasively quench-fragmented. The third and final event is younger than the massive sulfide deposits poorly represented in the mine area and minor compared with the two other events. The integration of biostratigraphic data with the volcanic facies architecture indicates that the Neves Corvo ore deposits are similar in age to the late Strunian rhyolitic lava. Although regionally the Iberian Pyrite Belt is essentially a sedimentary succession, ore formation at Neves Corvo can be closely linked to discrete volcanic events that produced a relatively narrow range of volcanic facies. © Springer-Verlag 2008.
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