eCite Digital Repository

The evolutionary relations of sunken, covered, and encrypted stomata to dry habitats in Proteaceae


Jordan, GJ and Weston, PH and Carpenter, RJ and Dillon, RA and Brodribb, TJ, The evolutionary relations of sunken, covered, and encrypted stomata to dry habitats in Proteaceae, American Journal of Botany, 95, (5) pp. 521-530. ISSN 0002-9122 (2008) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2008 American Journal of Botany

DOI: doi:10.3732/ajb.2007333


Sunken, covered, and encrypted stomata have been anecdotally linked with dry climates and reduced transpiration and therefore have been used to infer dry palaeoclimates from fossils. This study assesses the evolutionary and ecological associations of such stomatal protection in a model system—the diverse southern hemisphere family Proteaceae. Analyses were based on the morphology of over 1400 Australian, South African, New Caledonian, New Zealand, and South American species, anatomy of over 300 of these species, and bioclimatic data from all 1109 Australian species. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed that five or six evolutionary transitions explain over 98% of the dry climate species in the family, with a few other, minor invasions of dry climates. Deep encryption, i.e., stomata in deep pits, in grooves, enclosed by tightly revolute margins or strongly overarched by cuticle, evolved at least 11 times in very dry environments. Other forms of stomatal protection (sunken but not closely encrypted stomata, papillae, and layers of hairs covering the stomata) also evolved repeatedly, but had no systematic association with dry climates. These data are evidence for a strong distinction in function, with deep encryption being an adaptation to aridity, whereas broad pits and covered stomata have more complex relations to climate.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:ancestral state reconstruction, bioclimatic modeling, palaeoclimate, papillae, phyloclimatic analysis, Proteaceae, sclerophylly, stomatal encryption, water relations, xeromorphy
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Evolutionary biology
Research Field:Biological adaptation
Objective Division:Expanding Knowledge
Objective Group:Expanding knowledge
Objective Field:Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences
UTAS Author:Jordan, GJ (Professor Greg Jordan)
UTAS Author:Carpenter, RJ (Dr Raymond Carpenter)
UTAS Author:Dillon, RA (Miss Rebecca Dillon)
UTAS Author:Brodribb, TJ (Professor Tim Brodribb)
ID Code:54660
Year Published:2008
Web of Science® Times Cited:86
Deposited By:Plant Science
Deposited On:2009-02-26
Last Modified:2014-11-04

Repository Staff Only: item control page