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Visual detection of LSB-encoded natural image steganography


Watters, P and Martin, F and Steffen Stripf, H, Visual detection of LSB-encoded natural image steganography, ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 5, (1) pp. 1-12. ISSN 1544-3558 (2008) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright 2012 ACM, Inc.

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DOI: doi:10.1145/1328775


Many steganographic systems embed hidden messages inside the least significant bit layers of colour natural images. The presence of these messages can be difficult to detect by using statistical steganalysis. However, visual steganalysis by humans may be more successful in natural image discrimination. This study examined whether humans could detect least-significant bit steganography in 15 color natural images from the VisTex database using a controlled same/different task (N = 58) and a yes/no task (N = 61). While d' > 1 was observed for color layers 4-8, layers 1-3 had d' < 1 in both experiments. Thus, layers 1-3 appear to be highly resistant to visual steganalysis.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:security, experimentation, human factors, steganography; counterterrorism
Research Division:Psychology
Research Group:Other psychology
Research Field:Other psychology not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Expanding Knowledge
Objective Group:Expanding knowledge
Objective Field:Expanding knowledge in psychology
UTAS Author:Martin, F (Associate Professor Frances Martin)
ID Code:54472
Year Published:2008
Web of Science® Times Cited:4
Deposited By:Psychology
Deposited On:2009-02-23
Last Modified:2015-02-13

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