Risk factors for type II endoleaks after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms
Warrier, R and Miller, R and Bond, R and Robertson, IK and Hewitt, P and Scott, AR, Risk factors for type II endoleaks after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms, Australia New Zealand Journal of Surgery, 78, (1-2) pp. 61-63. ISSN 1445-1433 (2008) [Refereed Article]
Background: Endovascular repair has been shown to be superior to open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in terms of aneurysm-related survival. However, endovascular repair has its own unique complications such as endoleak. Type II endoleaks may be associated with aortic rupture. We attempt to identify patient variables associated with the development of endoleaks and hence facilitate their early identification.
Methods: Endovascular repair was carried out for non-ruptured, infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. Patients underwent preoperative computed tomography and angiography and were followed up with computed tomography and/or ultrasound scan at 1, 3 and 6 months and yearly thereafter. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify any patient factors associated with the risk for developing an endoleak.
Results: One hundred and one patients were included in the study (12 female : 89 male). Age 59–93 years. Mean follow up was 20.2 months. Type II endoleaks developed in 26 (25.7%) patients. Fifteen cases resolved during follow up, three of which required secondary intervention. Nine cases persist. No aneurysms ruptured. The presence of patent inferior mesenteric artery (P < 0.001) and sac enlargement (P = 0.001) were associated with development of endoleak as was diabetes in a multivariate model (P = 0.005). History of smoking (P = 0.01) was a protective factor. The presence of four or more lumbar arteries (P = 0.55) was not associated with increased risk.
Conclusions: It is possible to identify individual patient risk factors associated with risk for developing type II endoleaks and it may be possible to modify screening practice as a result. The association between patent inferior mesenteric artery preoperatively and endoleak is further confirmed. Spontaneous sealing of endoleaks is common and rupture is rare. Early intervention is not mandatory.