Changes in some carotenoids and apocarotenoids during flower development in Boronia megastigma (Nees)
Cooper, C and Davies, NW and Menary, RC, Changes in some carotenoids and apocarotenoids during flower development in Boronia megastigma (Nees), Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 57, (4) pp. 1513-1520. ISSN 0021-8561 (2009) [Refereed Article]
The carotenoid profile of an acetone extract from the flowers and leaves of Boronia megastigma (Nees) was examined. A comparison was made of the major carotenoids found in boronia flowers and leaves. The C-40 carotenoids β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein, and neoxanthin were positively identified in boronia flowers using known standards, UV-vis spectra, and mass spectrometry. Two other carotenoids were tentatively assigned as the palmitic acid ester of 3-hydroxy-10'-apocaroten-10'-oic acid and 9,15,9'-tri-cis-ζ-carotene. Additionally, changes in the levels of C-40 carotenoids, C-27 apocarotenoids, and β-ionone during flower development were measured. Significant increases in β-carotene and apocarotenoids that could be derived from cleavage in the 9,10-position, including β-ionone and various C-27 apocarotenoids, were observed at the time of flower opening. An increase in lutein, which is derived through an alternative biosynthetic pathway, was not observed during flower opening, thus indicating the possibility that the β-carotene pathway was activated during flower opening in boronia. The understanding of these processes may assist in optimizing harvest and postharvest processes useful to the boronia extraction industry.