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DNA Sequence and Expression Variation of Hop (Humulus lupulus) Valerophenone Synthase (VPS), a Key Gene in Bitter Acid Biosynthesis


Castro, CB and Whittock, LD and Whittock, SP and Leggett, G and Koutoulis, A, DNA Sequence and Expression Variation of Hop (Humulus lupulus) Valerophenone Synthase (VPS), a Key Gene in Bitter Acid Biosynthesis, Annals of Botany, 102, (2) pp. 265-273. ISSN 0305-7364 (2008) [Refereed Article]

DOI: doi:10.1093/aob/mcn089


• Background: The hop plant (Humulus lupulus) is a source of many secondary metabolites, with bitter acids essential in the beer brewing industry and others having potential applications for human health. This study investigated variation in DNA sequence and gene expression of valerophenone synthase (VPS), a key gene in the bitter acid biosynthesis pathway of hop. • Methods: Sequence variation was studied in 12 varieties, and expression was analysed in four of the 12 varieties in a series across the development of the hop cone. • Results: Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in VPS, seven of which were synonymous. The two non-synonymous polymorphisms did not appear to be related to typical bitter acid profiles of the varieties studied. However, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of VPS expression during hop cone development showed a clear link with the bitter acid content. The highest levels of VPS expression were observed in two triploid varieties, 'Symphony' and 'Ember', which typically have high bitter acid levels. • Conclusions: In all hop varieties studied, VPS expression was lowest in the leaves and an increase in expression was consistently observed during the early stages of cone development. © The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Genetics
Research Field:Gene expression (incl. microarray and other genome-wide approaches)
Objective Division:Plant Production and Plant Primary Products
Objective Group:Other plant production and plant primary products
Objective Field:Other plant production and plant primary products not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Castro, CB (Ms Consuelo Castro)
UTAS Author:Whittock, LD (Dr Lucy Whittock)
UTAS Author:Whittock, SP (Mr Simon Whittock)
UTAS Author:Koutoulis, A (Professor Anthony Koutoulis)
ID Code:52433
Year Published:2008
Web of Science® Times Cited:18
Deposited By:Menzies Institute for Medical Research
Deposited On:2008-07-11
Last Modified:2010-06-05

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