Distinctive features of Upper Palaeozoic massive sulfide deposits in South China
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Gu, LX and Zaw, K and Hu, WX and Zhang, K and Ni, P and He, JX and Xu, YT and Lu, JJ and Lin, CM, Distinctive features of Upper Palaeozoic massive sulfide deposits in South China, Ore Geology Reviews, 31, (1) pp. 107-138. ISSN 0169-1368 (2007) [Refereed Article]
More than 20 sediment-hosted massive sulphide deposits occur in Late Palaeozoic basins in South China. These deposits are accompanied by a certain amount of volcanic rocks in the host sequence and are economically important for their Cu, Pb, Zn, Au and Ag reserves. The deposits and their host strata were commonly intruded by Mesozoic granitoids. Remobilisation of sedimentary ores and magmatic hydrothermal overprinting processes resulted in the coexistence of massive sulphides with vein-, skarn- and porphyry-type orebodies in the same region or within a single deposit. The ore-containing basins occur in different tectonic settings. The Lower Yangtze basin occurs on a passive continental margin, where the deposits are high in Cu and Au with minor Pb and Zn and recoverable Ag, Co and Mo. The ores have a lower concentration of radiogenic lead, and δ 34S values close to zero. Fluid inclusions are highly saline and Na-rich. Fluids and metals of the Lower Yangtze Region are interpreted to have been derived essentially from deep sources including the Precambrian basement. By contrast, basins of the Nanling Region formed in an intracontinental setting developed on a folded Caledonian basement. These deposits are higher in Pb, Zn, Sn and W, as well as Cu, with recoverable Ag, Sb, Hg, U, Bi, Tl and Mo. The ores are characterised by a higher concentration of radiogenic lead and a wide variation of δ 34S composition. Fluid inclusions have lower salinities and higher K +/Na + ratios. Fluids are considered to have been sourced substantially from seawater by convection. Metals for the Nanling deposits were essentially derived from the Caledonian basement by leaching. The contrast in ore composition between these two regions appears to have been controlled by differences in basement composition of the ore-forming basins. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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