The Liverpool Adverse Events Profile: Relation to AED Use and mood
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Panelli, R and Kilpatrick, C and Moore, SM and Matkovic, Z and D'Souza, WJ and O'Brien, TJ, The Liverpool Adverse Events Profile: Relation to AED Use and mood, Epilepsia, 48, (3) pp. 456-463. ISSN 0013-9580 (2007) [Refereed Article]
Purpose: The Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP) is used as a systematic measure of adverse effects from antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This study evaluated LAEP in newly diagnosed seizure patients, and examined the relation between LAEP, anxiety, and depression. Methods: Seizure patients seen in the two First Seizure Clinics were categorized into group A (AEDs commenced after assessment), group B (AEDs commenced before assessment), and group C (no AEDs). LAEP and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were completed at baseline (n = 164) and 3 months (n = 103). Each LAEP symptom was assessed for baseline frequency, 3-month frequency, and frequency change over a 3-month period. Global scores for LAEP and HADS were analysed at baseline and 3 months. Results: Symptom-reporting patterns were similar between groups. However, increased frequency over a 3-month period occurred for 12 symptoms in group A, 10 in group B, and one in group C. Global LAEP and HADS showed no significant group differences at baseline or changes over a 3-month period. Multiple regression revealed that HADS scores predicted LAEP global scores better than did AED status. Multivariate analyses of variance demonstrated that increased reporting of 16 of 19 LAEP symptoms was significantly related to higher anxiety and depression rates. Conclusions: In a First Seizure Clinic, LAEP detects changes in specific symptom frequencies when used as a repeated, symptom-by-symptom measure. Increased symptom frequency is associated with diagnostic category/AED treatment, anxiety, and depression. Global LAEP scores do not illustrate differences in symptom reporting between patients. © 2007 International League Against Epilepsy.
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