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Widespread presence of hydrophobic paralytic shellfish toxins in Gymnodinium catenatum


Negri, AP and Bolch, CJS and Geier, S and Green, DH and Park, TG and Blackburn, SI, Widespread presence of hydrophobic paralytic shellfish toxins in Gymnodinium catenatum , Harmful Algae, 6, (6) pp. 774-780. ISSN 1568-9883 (2007) [Refereed Article]

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.hal.2007.04.001


The toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham produces a newly discovered sub-class of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs, saxitoxins) that contain a hydroxybenzoate moiety in place of the carbamoyl group (GC toxins: GC1-GC3). GC toxins bind strongly to sodium channels and their lipophilic nature may increase their potential to bioaccumulate in marine organisms. Cultures Australian G. catenatum strains were found to contain 12-63 mol% GC toxins. The GC toxins were also detected in strains from China (38 mol%), Japan (1-2 mol%), Portugal (58 mol%), Spain (36-54 mol%), and Uruguay (10-16 mol%). A cluster analysis of molar proportions of saxitoxin derivatives produced by strains showed clear clustering by country/region of origin, indicating that GC toxins may be very useful markers to identify the source of G. catenatum in the case of new outbreaks. The GC toxins dominate the toxin profiles of many G. catenatum strains, and can contribute significantly to sample toxicity, yet these toxins may easily escape detection using conventional chromatography, resulting in significant underestimates of sample toxicity. This has significant implications for shellfish monitoring and safety. Crown Copyright © 2007.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Ecology
Research Field:Marine and estuarine ecology (incl. marine ichthyology)
Objective Division:Environmental Management
Objective Group:Coastal and estuarine systems and management
Objective Field:Coastal or estuarine biodiversity
UTAS Author:Bolch, CJS (Associate Professor Christopher Bolch)
UTAS Author:Park, TG (Mr Taie Park)
ID Code:50480
Year Published:2007
Web of Science® Times Cited:71
Deposited By:NC Marine Conservation and Resource Sustainability
Deposited On:2007-08-01
Last Modified:2008-05-26

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