Origins and diversity of the Portuguese Landrace of
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Freeman, JS and Marques, CMP and Carocha, V and Borralho, N and Potts, BM and Vaillancourt, RE, Origins and diversity of the Portuguese Landrace of
Eucalyptus globulus, Annals of Forest Science, 64, (6) pp. 639-647. ISSN 1286-4560 (2007) [Refereed Article]
The Portuguese Landrace of Eucalyptus globulus is of unknown origin, with the earliest plantings of this tree species dating back to the early 19th century. In Portugal it is currently a major seed source for plantations and is also used in breeding programs. Eucalyptus globulus is native to south-eastern Australia. The substantial genetic differentiation of chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers between different native geographic races of this species allowed us to uncover the Australian origins of the Portuguese Landrace and to study its genetic diversity. To achieve this, we sequenced a highly polymorphic region of chloroplast DNA from 47 Portuguese Landrace individuals, and genotyped 34 of these using seven nuclear microsatellites. We compared these individuals to those in a database comprising chloroplast DNA sequence profiles from 292 native trees and seven nuclear microsatellites from 372 native trees. The majority of the Portuguese Landrace samples had closest affinities, in both marker systems, to native trees from south-eastern Tasmania, but some had affinities to trees from south-eastern Victoria. The discrepancies in the affinities indicated by chloroplast versus nuclear DNA markers could be explained by inter-race hybridisation after introduction. The genetic diversity in the Portuguese Landrace was less than that found in native E. globulus at the species level, but was similar to the average diversity found in native races of the species. This study demonstrates the power of using independent marker systems to identify the origins and diversity of domesticated populations, by comparison with variation in native stands. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2007.
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