Effect of Secondary Metabolites Associated with Anaerobic Soil Conditions on Ion Fluxes and Electrophysiology in Barley Roots
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Pang, J and Cuin, TA and Shabala, L and Zhou, M and Mendham, NJ and Shabala, SN, Effect of Secondary Metabolites Associated with Anaerobic Soil Conditions on Ion Fluxes and Electrophysiology in Barley Roots, Plant Physiology, 145, (1) pp. 266-276. ISSN 0032-0889 (2007) [Refereed Article]
The effects of secondary metabolites produced by waterlogged soils on net K +, H +, and Ca 2+ fluxes were studied in the mature zone of roots of two barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars contrasting in their waterlogging (WL) tolerance using the noninvasive microelectrode ion flux measuring technique. In WL-sensitive variety 'Naso Nijo', all three lower monocarboxylic acids (formic, acetic, and propionic acids) and three phenolic acids (benzoic, 2-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic acids) caused a substantial shift toward steady K + efflux, accompanied by an immediate net influx of H +. Detrimental effects of secondary metabolites on K + homeostasis in root cells were absent in WL-tolerant 'TX' variety. Root treatment with Mn 2+ caused only a temporary K + loss that returned to the initial level 10 min after treatment. Phenolic acids slightly increased Ca 2+ influx immediately after treatment, while other metabolites tested resulted in transient Ca 2+ efflux from the root. In the long-term (24 h) treatment, all metabolites tested significantly reduced K + uptake and the adverse effects of phenolic acids were smaller than for monocarboxylic acids and Mn 2+. Treatment with monocarboxylic acids for 24 h shifted H + from net efflux to net influx, while all three phenolic acids did not cause significant effects compared with the control. Based on results of pharmacological experiments and membrane potential measurements, a model explaining the effects of secondary metabolites on membrane transport activity is proposed. We also suggest that plant tolerance to these secondary metabolites could be considered a useful trait in breeding programs. © 2007 American Society of Plant Biologists.
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