Kriwoken, LK and Holmes, ND, Emerging Issues of Australia's Sub-Antarctic Islands: Macquarie Island and Heard Island and McDonald Islands, In: Looking South: Australias Antarctic Agenda, Federation Press, L Kriwoken, J Jabour, & AD Hemmings (ed), Leichhardt, NSW, pp. 149-164. ISBN 9781862876576 (2007) [Research Book Chapter]
Official URL: http://www.federationpress.com.au/bookstore/book.asp?isbn=9781862876576
Macquarie Island (Macquarie) and Heard Island and McDonald Islands (HIMI) are spectacular, remote Australian sub-Antarctic islands located in the Southern Ocean. Macquarie and HIMI are home to an abundant and diverse array of unique sub-Antarctic wildlife. The vastness of the Southern Ocean and the isolation of these islands mean they provide crucial habitat for fauna, flora and microbial life. On Macquarie and HIMI
3.5 and 1.3 million seabirds annually breed and moult, largely represented by five penguin species.
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