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The morphologic and neurochemical basis of dementia: Aging, hierarchical patterns of lesion distribution and vulnerable neuronal phenotype


Hof, PR and Giannakopoulos, P and Vickers, JC and Bouras, C and Morrison, JH, The morphologic and neurochemical basis of dementia: Aging, hierarchical patterns of lesion distribution and vulnerable neuronal phenotype, Reviews in the Neurosciences, 6, (2) pp. 97-124. ISSN 0334-1763 (1995) [Refereed Article]

DOI: doi:10.1515/REVNEURO.1995.6.2.97


Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia in elderly individuals. Approximately 11% of the population older than 65, and up to 50% of individuals over 85 qualify as having “probable Alzheimer's disease” on the basis of clinical evaluation. Since the early description of the clinical symptoms and neuropathologic features of Alzheimer's disease, there has been an extraordinary growth in the knowledge of the morphologic and molecular characteristics of Alzheimer's disease. Although the pathogenetic events that lead to dementia are not yet fully understood, several hypotheses regarding the formation of the hallmark pathologic structures of Alzheimer's disease have been proposed. In this context, the use of specific histochemical techniques in the primate brain has greatly expanded our understanding of neuron typology, connectivity and circuit distribution in relation to neurochemical identity. In this respect, very specific subsets of cortical neurons and cortical afferents can be identified by their particular content of certain neurotransmitters and structural proteins. In this article, we discuss the possible relationships between the distribution of pathologic changes in aging, Alzheimer's disease, and possibly related dementing conditions, in the context of the specific elements of the cortical circuitry that are affected by these alterations. Also, evidence for links between the neurochemical phenotype of a given neuron and its relative vulnerability or resistance to the degenerative process are presented in order to correlate the distribution of cellular pathologic changes, neurochemical characteristics related to vulnerability, and affected cortical circuits. © 1995, Freund Publishing House Ltd.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Neurosciences
Research Field:Central nervous system
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Other health
Objective Field:Other health not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Vickers, JC (Professor James Vickers)
ID Code:4684
Year Published:1995
Web of Science® Times Cited:24
Deposited By:Pathology
Deposited On:1995-08-01
Last Modified:2011-08-24

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