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Lipid, fatty acid, and sterol composition of eight species of Kareniaceae (dinophyta): chemotaxonomy and putative lipid phycotoxins


Mooney, B and Nichols, PD and de Salas, MF and Hallegraeff, GM, Lipid, fatty acid, and sterol composition of eight species of Kareniaceae (dinophyta): chemotaxonomy and putative lipid phycotoxins, Journal of Phycology, 43, (1) pp. 101-111. ISSN 0022-3646 (2007) [Refereed Article]

DOI: doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00312.x


The lipid class, fatty acid, and sterol composition of eight species of ichthyotoxic marine gymnodinioid dinoflagellate (Karenia, Karlodinium, and Takayama) species was examined. The major lipid class in all species was phospholipid (78%-95%), with low levels of triacylglycerol (TAG; 0%-16%) and free fatty acid (FFA; 1%-11%). The common dinoflagellate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), octadecapentaenoic acid (OPA 18:5ω3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6ω3), were present in all species in varying amounts (14%-35% and 8%-23%, respectively). The very-long-chain PUFA (VLC-PUFA) 28:7ω6 and 28:8ω3 were present at low levels (<1%), and the ratio of these fatty acids may be a useful chemotaxonomic marker at the species level. The typical dinoflagellate sterol dinosterol was absent from all species tested. A predominance of the 4-methyl and 4-desmethyl "8(14) sterols in all dinoflagellate species included 23-methyl-27-norergosta-8(14),22-dien- 3β-ol (Karenia papilionacea A. J. Haywood et Steid, 59%-66%); 27-nor-(24R)-4α-methyl-5α-ergosta-8(14),22-dien-3β-ol, brevesterol, (Takayama tasmanica de Salas, Bolch et Hallegraeff 84%, Takayama helix de Salas, Bolch, Botes et Hallegraeff 71%, Karenia brevis (C. C. Davis) G. Hansen et Moestrup 45%, Karlodinium KDSB01 40%, Karenia mikimotoi (Miyake et Kominami ex Oda) G. Hansen et Moestrup 38%); and (24R)-4α-methyl-5α- ergosta-8(14),22-dien-3β-ol, gymnodinosterol, (K. mikimotoi 48%, Karenia umbella de Salas, Bolch et Hallegraeff 59%, Karlodinium veneficum (D. L. Ballant.) J. Larsen 71%-83%). In Takayama species, five steroid ketones were identified, including for the first time the 3-keto form of brevesterol and gymnodinosterol. These results indicate a biochemical link between sterol and steroid ketone biosynthesis, suggesting that selected dinoflagellates can make a significant contribution to ketones in marine sediments. The presence of steroid ketones, specific sterols, and fatty acids, and the ratio of VLC-PUFA may prove to be a useful chemotaxonomic tool for distinguishing between morphologically similar species. The relative levels of the PUFA, OPA, and DHA, coupled with the potential inhibitory action of "8(14) sterols, may provide an insight into the ichthyotoxicity of these bloom-forming dinoflagellates. © 2007 by the Phycological Society of America.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Biochemistry and cell biology
Research Field:Biochemistry and cell biology not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Animal Production and Animal Primary Products
Objective Group:Fisheries - aquaculture
Objective Field:Fisheries - aquaculture not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Mooney, B (Mr Ben Mooney)
UTAS Author:de Salas, MF (Dr Miguel de Salas)
UTAS Author:Hallegraeff, GM (Professor Gustaaf Hallegraeff)
ID Code:46718
Year Published:2007
Web of Science® Times Cited:78
Deposited By:Plant Science
Deposited On:2007-08-01
Last Modified:2008-05-17

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