Efficacy of three commercially available ballast water biocides against vegetative microalgae, dinoflagellate cysts and bacteria
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Gregg, M and Hallegraeff, GM, Efficacy of three commercially available ballast water biocides against vegetative microalgae, dinoflagellate cysts and bacteria, Harmful Algae, 6, (4) pp. 567-584. ISSN 1568-9883 (2007) [Refereed Article]
One proposed solution to the problem of ballast-mediated aquatic invasions involves chemically treating ballast water to kill key target organisms. Here, we examine the efficacy of three commercially available ballast water biocides using vegetative microalgae, dinoflagellate resting cysts and bacteria as test organisms. Chemicals tested were the ballast water biocides SeaKleen® and Peraclean® Ocean, and the chlorine dioxide biocide Vibrex®. Results demonstrate that the applicability of each of the three chemical biocides as a routine ballast water treatment is limited by factors such as cost, biological effectiveness and possible residual toxicity of the discharged ballast water (assessed on the basis of impact on motility of vegetative marine microalgae). Of the three biocides tested, Peraclean® Ocean appears to hold the most potential; however its effectiveness in shipboard trials is yet to be proven. Peraclean® Ocean was biodegradable within 2-6 weeks (initial concentration of 200 ppm), could effectively inactivate resting cysts of the marine dinoflagellates Gymnodinium catenatum, Alexandrium catenella and Protoceratium reticulatum at 400 ppm, could control bacterial growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua and Vibrio alginolyticus at 125-250 ppm, and could eliminate vegetative dinoflagellate cells at a concentration of 100 ppm. SeaKleen® eliminated vegetative microalgae at 2 ppm and could control resting cysts of the dinoflagellates G. catenatum and P. reticulatum at a concentration of 6 and 10 ppm, respectively, when exposed for a period of 2 weeks. SeaKleen® did not inactivate resting cysts of A. catenella at a concentration of 10 ppm and was found to degrade at a rate that could result in the discharge of residual toxic water into the marine environment. Together with the poor bactericidal properties of SeaKleen® (100-200 ppm required), this may limit the use of this biocide as a routine treatment option. Vibrex® is not a suitable ballast water treatment option due to the need for hydrochloric acid as an activator, however it was found to be the most effective against bacteria (complete inhibition at 15 ppm) indicating that onboard chlorine dioxide generators may provide an effective bacterial treatment option. The performance of these biocides was adversely influenced by a variety of factors including low water temperatures (6 °C compared to 17 °C), light versus dark conditions, and the presence of humus-rich seawater and ballast water sediments. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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