Linking mineral and fluid inclusion paragenetic studies: The Batman deposit, Mt. Todd (Yimuyn Manjerr) goldfield, Australia
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Hein, KAA and Zaw, K and Mernagh, TP, Linking mineral and fluid inclusion paragenetic studies: The Batman deposit, Mt. Todd (Yimuyn Manjerr) goldfield, Australia, Ore Geology Reviews, 28, (2) pp. 180-200. ISSN 0169-1368 (2006) [Refereed Article]
The quartz-sulphide vein system of the Batman deposit at the Mt. Todd Mine, Australia, formed during east-west extension of a north-northeasterly trending structure system, early in D 2 during retrograde contact metamorphism associated with cooling of the Tennysons leucogranite. Four distinct fluid inclusion types have been identified in gold-bearing quartz-sulphide veins of the deposit: (Type I) low to moderate salinity aqueous primary inclusions (1 to 20 wt.% NaCl equivalent) with small amounts of CO 2; (Type II) high salinity Na-Ca-Cl aqueous secondary inclusions (35 to 50 wt.% total NaCl-CaCl 2), containing halite, carbonate and trona daughter minerals, and minor CO 2-CH 4 vapour; (Type III) liquid and vapour secondary fluid inclusions (28 to 34 or 17 to 18 wt.% NaCl equivalent) with CH 4 vapour and discrete gold and bismuth grains and associated growth zones; (Type IV) vapour-rich CO 2 ± (CH 4) secondary inclusions with minor NaCl liquid (> 20 wt.% NaCl equivalent). A consistency in bulk fluid composition suggests a common parent fluid and a common parent source for the fluid inclusions. Previous paragenetic and textural studies have established a sequence in sulphide and silicate precipitation. The mineral paragenesis has been linked to the trapping chronology of Types I-IV fluid inclusions in order to constrain the fluid conditions during (micro)-tectonism and the mineralising process. The link is possible because two mineral phases exhibit a temporal genetic relationship with the formation of fluid inclusions: (1) Growth zones in simple open space quartz fill contain tourmaline crystals in intimate association with Type I liquid-vapour fluid inclusions; (2) Gold is intimately associated with bismuth in Type III vapour-liquid fluid inclusions, either as discrete inclusions within the trails, or wetting the inclusions. The progressive change in the composition of Types I-IV is consistent with the evolution of a retrograde contact metamorphic fluid in wall rock lithologies. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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