On-line preconcentration of organic anions in capillary electrophoresis by solid-phase extraction using latex-coated monolithic stationary phases
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Hutchinson, J and Macka, M and Avdalovic, N and Haddad, PR, On-line preconcentration of organic anions in capillary electrophoresis by solid-phase extraction using latex-coated monolithic stationary phases, Journal of Chromatography A, 1106, (1-2) pp. 43-51. ISSN 0021-9673 (2006) [Refereed Article]
Quaternary ammonium functionalised polymeric latex particles were coated onto the wall of a fused-silica capillary or onto a methacrylate monolithic bed synthesised inside the capillary in order to create ion-exchange stationary phases of varying ion-exchange capacity. These capillaries were coupled in-line to a separation capillary and used for the solid-phase extraction (SPE), preconcentration and subsequent separation of organic anions by capillary electrophoresis. A transient isotachophoretic gradient was used for the elution of bound analytes from the SPE phase using two modes of separation. The first comprised a low capacity SPE column combined with a fluoride/octanesulfonate discontinuous electrolyte system in which peak compression occurred at the isotachophoretic gradient front. The compressed anions were separated electrophoretically after elution from the SPE preconcentration phase and resolution was achieved by altering the pH of the electrolyte in which the separation was performed. In the second approach, a latex-coated monolithic SPE preconcentration stationary phase was used in combination with a fluoride/perchlorate electrolyte system, which allowed capillary electrochromatographic separation to occur behind the isotachophoretic gradient front. This method permitted the removal of weakly bound anions from the SPE phase, thereby establishing the possibility of sample clean-up. The effect of the nature of the strong electrolyte forming the isotachophoretic gradient on the separation and also on the preconcentration step was investigated. Capillary electrochromatography of inorganic and organic species performed on the latex-coated monolithic methacrylate column highlighted the presence of mixed-mode interactions resulting from the incomplete coverage of latex particles onto the monolithic surface. Analyte preconcentration prior to separation resulted in compression of the analyte zone by a factor of 300. Improvement in the limit of detection of up to 10400 times could be achieved when performing the preconcentration step and the presented methods had limits of detection (S/N = 3) ranging between 1.5 and 12 nM for the organic anions studied. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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