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Grapes on Steroids. Brassinosteroids Are Involved in Grape Berry Ripening

Citation

Symons, GM and Davies, C and Shavrukov, Y and Dry, IB and Reid, JB and Thomas, MR, Grapes on Steroids. Brassinosteroids Are Involved in Grape Berry Ripening, Plant Physiology, 140, (1) pp. 150-158. ISSN 0032-0889 (2006) [Refereed Article]

DOI: doi:10.1104/pp.105.070706

Abstract

Fruit ripening is a unique plant developmental process with direct implications for our food supply, nutrition, and health. In contrast to climacteric fruit, where ethylene is pivotal, the hormonal control of ripening in nonclimacteric fruit, such as grape (Vitis vinifera), is poorly understood. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal hormones, essential for normal plant growth and development but not previously implicated in the ripening of nonclimacteric fruit. Here we show that increases in endogenous BR levels, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or GA levels, are associated with ripening in grapes. Putative grape homologs of genes encoding BR biosynthesis enzymes (BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE and DWARF1) and the BR receptor (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1) were isolated, and the function of the grape BRASSINOSTEROID-6- OXIDASE gene was confirmed by transgenic complementation of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) extreme dwarf (dx/dx) mutant. Expression analysis of these genes during berry development revealed transcript accumulation patterns that were consistent with a dramatic increase in endogenous BR levels observed at the onset of fruit ripening. Furthermore, we show that application of BRs to grape berries significantly promoted ripening, while brassinazole, an inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, significantly delayed fruit ripening. These results provide evidence that changes in endogenous BR levels influence this key developmental process. This may provide a significant insight into the mechanism controlling ripening in grapes, which has direct implications for the logistics of grape production and down-stream processing. © 2005 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Plant Biology
Research Field:Plant Physiology
Objective Division:Plant Production and Plant Primary Products
Objective Group:Horticultural Crops
Objective Field:Table Grapes
Author:Symons, GM (Mr Gregory Symons)
Author:Reid, JB (Professor Jim Reid)
ID Code:42810
Year Published:2006
Web of Science® Times Cited:160
Deposited By:Plant Science
Deposited On:2006-08-01
Last Modified:2007-05-04
Downloads:0

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