Pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in ICU patients on continuous ven-venous haemodiafiltration
Wallis, S and Mullany, DV and Lipman, J and Rickard, CM and Daley, PJ, Pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in ICU patients on continuous ven-venous haemodiafiltration, Intensive Care Medicine, 27, (4) pp. 665-672. ISSN 0342-4642 (2001) [Refereed Article]
Objectives: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin 200 mg every 8 h in critically ill patients on continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), one form of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Design and setting: Open, prospective clinical study in a multidisciplinary, intensive care unit in a university-affiliated tertiary referral hospital. Patients: Six critically ill patients with acute renal failure on CVVHDE Interventions: Timed blood and ultrafiltrate samples were collected to allow pharmacokinetics and clearances to be calculated of initial and subsequent doses of 200 mg intravenous ciprofloxacin. CVVHD was performed with 1 l/h of dialysate and 2 l/h of predilution filtration solution, producing 3 l/h of dialysis effluent. The blood was pumped at 200 ml/min using a Gambro BMM10 blood pump through a Hospal AN69HF haemofilter. Measurements and results: Ten pharmacokinetic profiles were mea sured. The CVVHDF displayed a urea clearance of 42 ± 3 ml/min, and removed ciprofloxacin with a clearance of 37 ± 7 ml/min. This rate was 2-2.5 greater than previously published for ciprofloxacin in other forms of CRRT. On average the CVVHDF was responsible for clearing a fifth of all ciprofloxacin eliminated (21 ± 10%). The total body clearance of ciprofloxacin was 12.2 ± 4.3 l/h. The trough concentration following the initial dose was 0.7 ± 0.3 mg/l. The area under the plasma concentration time curves over a 24-h period ranged from 21 to 55 mg·h l-1. Conclusions: Intravenous ciprofloxacin 600 mg/day in critically ill patients using this form of CRRT produced adequate plasma levels for many resistant microbes found in intensive care units.