Cardiac troponin I predicts myocardial dysfunction in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
Parekh, N and Venkatesh, B and Cross, D and Leditschke, A and Atherton, J and Miles, W and Winning, A and Clague, A and Rickard, CM, Cardiac troponin I predicts myocardial dysfunction in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, Journal of American College of Cardiology, 36, (4) pp. 1328-1335. ISSN 0735-1097 (2000) [Refereed Article]
OBJECTIVES: We studied the incidence of myocardial injury in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using the more sensitive cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay, correlated changes in cTnI with creatine kinase, MB fraction (CK-MB), myoglobin, and catecholamine metabolite assays, and examined the predictive value of changes in cTnI for myocardial dysfunction. BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury in aneurysmal SAH as evidenced by elevated CK-MB fraction has been reported. Little published data exist on the value of cTnI measurements in aneurysmal SAH. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients were studied for seven days. Clinical cardiovascular assessment, electrocardiographic (ECG), echocardiography, cTnI, CK, CK-MB and CK-MB index, myoglobin and 24-h urinary catecholamine assays were performed in all patients. The ECG abnormalities were defined by the presence of ST-T changes, prolonged QT intervals, and arrhythmias. An abnormal echocardiogram was defined by the presence of wall-motion abnormalities and a reduced ejection fraction. The severity of SAH was graded clinically and radiologically. RESULTS: Eight patients demonstrated elevations in cTnI (upper limit of normal is 0.1 μg/liter with the immunoenzymatic assay and 0.4 μg/liter with the sandwich immunoassay), while five had abnormal CK-MB levels (upper limit of normal is 8 μg/liter). Patients with more severe grades of SAH were more likely to develop a cTnI leak (p < 0.05). Patients with cTnI elevations were more likely to demonstrate ECG abnormalities (p < 0.01) and manifest clinical myocardial dysfunction (p < 0.01) as evidenced by the presence of a gallop rhythm on auscultation and clinical or radiological evidence of pulmonary edema as compared to those with CK-MB elevations. The sensitivity and specificity of cTnI to predict myocardial dysfunction were 100% and 91%, respectively, whereas the corresponding figures for CK-MB were 60% and 94%, respectively. Elevations in myoglobin levels (upper limit of normal <70 μg/liter) and urinary catecholamine metabolites (urinary vanilmandelate/creatinine ratio upper limit of normal, 2.6) are a nonspecific finding. CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of cTnI reveal a higher incidence of myocardial injury than predicted by CK-MB in aneurysmal SAH, and elevations of cTnI are associated with a higher incidence of myocardial dysfunction. Thus, cTnI is a highly sensitive and specific indicator of myocardial dysfunction in aneurysmal SAH. (C) 2000 by the American College of Cardiology.