The expression of immune-regulatory genes in rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss, during amoebic gill disease (AGD)
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Bridle, AR and Morrison, RN and Nowak, BF, The expression of immune-regulatory genes in rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss, during amoebic gill disease (AGD), Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 20, (3) pp. 346-364. ISSN 1050-4648 (2006) [Refereed Article]
Amoebic gill disease (AGD) is an ectoparasitic disease caused by infection with the protozoan Neoparamoeba sp. and is characterised by epithelial hyperplasia that manifests as gill lesions. In order to examine the nature of the immune response to AGD, the expression of a range of immune-regulatory genes was examined in naïve uninfected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and naïve rainbow trout subjected to a laboratory-induced AGD infection. The immune-regulatory genes examined were interleukin-1 beta isoform 1 (IL-1β1), tumour necrosis factor alpha isoforms 1 and 2 (TNF-α1, TNF-α2), interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor beta isoform 1 (TGF-β1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), major histocompatibility complex beta chain (MHC-II β-chain) and T-cell receptor beta chain (TCR β-chain). Immune-regulatory genes that were up/down-regulated in AGD-infected trout compared to uninfected controls at 0, 7, and 14 days post-inoculation (p.i.) in gill, liver and anterior kidney tissue were initially identified by means of semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Up/down-regulated immune-regulatory genes were subsequently quantitated and validated by real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The extent of AGD-associated pathology was consistent amongst all AGD-infected trout at 7 days p.i. and increased considerably by 14 days p.i. At both 7 and 14 days p.i. IL-1β1 and iNOS gene expression was significantly up-regulated in the gills, and IL-8 was significantly up-regulated in the liver of AGD-infected trout at 7 days p.i. These data demonstrate the involvement of the immune response to AGD at the molecular level, and indicate the importance of this response at the site of infection and the possible involvement of a systemic immune response. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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