Genetic diversity in the blackberry rust pathogen,
Phragmidium violaceum, in Europe and Australasia as revealed by analysis of SAMPL
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Gomez, DR and Evans, KJ and Harvey, PR and Baker, J and Barton, J and Jourdan, M and Morin, L and Pennycook, SR and Scott, ES, Genetic diversity in the blackberry rust pathogen,
Phragmidium violaceum, in Europe and Australasia as revealed by analysis of SAMPL, Mycological Research, 110, (4) pp. 423-430. ISSN 0953-7562 (2006) [Refereed Article]
Indigenous to Europe, the blackberry rust fungus Phragmidium violaceum was introduced to Australia and subsequently appeared in New Zealand, with the most recent authorised introductions to Australia specifically for the biological control of European blackberry. Markers for 'selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci' (SAMPL) were developed for studying the population genetics of P. violaceum. Modification of one of the two SAMPL primers with a HaeIII adapter (H) revealed significantly greater levels of genetic variation than primers used to generate AFLPs, the latter revealing little or no variation among 25 Australasian and 19 European isolates of P. violaceum. SAMPL was used to describe genetic variation among these 44 isolates of P. violaceum from 51 loci generated using primer pairs (GACA) 4 + H-G and R1 + H-G. The European isolates were more diverse than Australasian isolates, with 37 and 22 % polymorphic loci, respectively. Cluster analysis revealed geographic clades, with Australasian isolates forming one cluster separated from two clusters comprising the European isolates. However, low bootstrap support at these clades suggested that Australian isolates had not differentiated significantly from European isolates since the first record of P. violaceum in Australia in 1984. In general, the results support two hypotheses. First, that the population of P. violaceum in Australia was founded from a subset of individuals originating from Europe. Second, that P. violaceum in New Zealand originated from the Australian population of P. violaceum, probably by wind dispersal of urediniospores across the Tasman Sea. The application of SAMPL markers to the current biological control programme for European blackberry is discussed. © 2005 The British Mycological Society.
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