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National character does not reflect mean personality trait levels in 49 cultures


Terracciano, A and Abdel-Khalek, AM and Adam, N and Adamovova, L and Ahn, C-k and Ahn, H-n and Alansari, BM and Alcalay, L and Allik, J and Angleitner, A and Avia, MD and Ayearst, LE and Barbaranelli, C and Beer, A and Borg-Cunen, MA and Bratko, D and Brunner-Sciarra, M and Budzinski, L and Camart, N and Dahourou, D and De Fruyt, F and de Lima, MP and del Pilar, GEH and Diener, E and Falzon, R and Fernando, K and Fickova, E and Fischer, R and Flores-Mendoza, C and Ghayur, MA and Gulgoz, S and Hagberg, B and Halberstadt, J and Halim, MS and Hrebickova, M and Humrichouse, J and Jensen, HH and Jocic, DD and Jonsson, FH and Khoury, B and Klinkosz, W and Knezevic, G and Lauri, MA and Leibovich, N and Martin, TA and Marusic, I and Mastor, KA and Matsumoto, D and McRorie, M and Meshcheriakov, B and Mortensen, EL and Munyae, M and Nagy, J and Nakazato, K and Nansubuga, F and Oishi, S and Ojedokun, AO and Ostendorf, F and Paulhus, DL and Pelevin, S and Petot, JM and Podobnik, N and Porrata, JL and Pramila, VS and Prentice, G and Realo, A and Reategui, N and Rolland, JP and Rossier, J and Ruch, W and Rus, VS and Sanchez-Bernados, ML and Schmidt, V and Sciculna-Calleja, S and Sekowski, A and Shakespeare-Finch, JE and Shimonaka, Y and Simonetti, F and Sineshaw, T and Siuta, J and Smith, PB and Trapnell, PD and Trobst, KK and Wang, L and Yik, M and Zupancic, A and McCrae, RR, National character does not reflect mean personality trait levels in 49 cultures, Science, 310, (5745 ) pp. 96-100. ISSN 0036-8075 (2005) [Refereed Article]

DOI: doi:10.1126/science.1117199


Most people hold beliefs about personality characteristics typical of members of their own and others' cultures. These perceptions of national character may be generalizations from personal experience, stereotypes with a "kernel of truth," or inaccurate stereotypes. We obtained national character ratings of 3989 people from 49 cultures and compared them with the average personality scores of culture members assessed by observer ratings and self-reports. National character ratings were reliable but did not converge with assessed traits. Perceptions of national character thus appear to be unfounded stereotypes that may serve the function of maintaining a national identity.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Research Division:Psychology
Research Group:Social and personality psychology
Research Field:Social psychology
Objective Division:Expanding Knowledge
Objective Group:Expanding knowledge
Objective Field:Expanding knowledge in human society
UTAS Author:Shakespeare-Finch, JE (Dr Jane Shakespeare-Finch)
ID Code:38684
Year Published:2005
Web of Science® Times Cited:272
Deposited By:Psychology
Deposited On:2006-03-10
Last Modified:2015-10-23

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