Latex-Coated Polymeric Monolithic Ion-Exchange Stationary Phases. 1. Anion-Exchange Capillary Electrochromatography and In-Line Sample Preconcentration in Capillary Electrophoresis
Hutchinson, J and Zakaria, P and Bowie, AR and Macka, M and Avdalovic, N and Haddad, PR, Latex-Coated Polymeric Monolithic Ion-Exchange Stationary Phases. 1. Anion-Exchange Capillary Electrochromatography and In-Line Sample Preconcentration in Capillary Electrophoresis, Analytical Chemistry, 77, (2) pp. 407-416. ISSN 0003-2700 (2005) [Refereed Article]
A sulfonated methacrylate monolithic polymer has been synthesized inside fused-silica capillaries of diameters 50-533-μm i.d. and coated with 65-nm-diameter fully functionalized quaternary ammonium latex particles (AS18, Dionex Corp.) to form an anion-exchange stationary phase. This stationary phase was used for ion-exchange capillary electrochromatography of inorganic anions in a 75-μm-i.d. capillary with Tris/perchlorate electrolyte and direct UV detection at 195 nm. Seven inorganic anions (bromide, nitrate, iodide, iodate, bromate, thiocyanate, chromate) could be separated over a period of 90 s, and the elution order indicated that both ion exchange and electrophoresis contributed to the separation mechanism. Separation efficiencies of up to 1.66 × 105 plates m-1 were achieved, and the monoliths were stable under pressures of up to 62 MPa. Another latex-coated monolith in a 250-μm-i.d. capillary was used for in-line preconcentration by coupling it to a separation capillary in which the EOF had been reversed using a coating of either a cationic polymer or cationic latex particles. Several capillary volumes of sample were loaded onto the preconcentration monolith, and the analytes (inorganic anions) were then eluted from the monolith with a transient isotachophoretic gradient before being separated by electrophoresis in the separation capillary. Linear calibration curves were obtained for aqueous mixtures of bromide, nitrite, nitrate, and iodide. Recoveries of all analytes except iodide were reduced significantly when the sample matrix contained high levels of chloride. The preconcentration method was applied to the determination of iodide in open ocean water and provided a limit of detection of 75 pM (9.5 ng/L) calculated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The relative standard deviation for migration time and peak area for iodide were 1.1 and 2.7%, respectively (n = 6). Iodide was eluted as an efficient peak, yielding a separation efficiency of 5.13 × 107 plates m-1. This focusing was reproducible for repeated analyses of seawater.