Morphology and propagation styles of Miocene submarine basanite lavas at Stanley, northwestern Tasmania, Australia
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Goto, Y and McPhie, J, Morphology and propagation styles of Miocene submarine basanite lavas at Stanley, northwestern Tasmania, Australia, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 130, (3-4) pp. 307-328. ISSN 0377-0273 (2004) [Refereed Article]
Miocene submarine basanite pillows, lava lobes, megapillows and sheet lavas in the Stanley Peninsula, northwestern Tasmania, Australia, are well-preserved in three dimensions. The pillows have ropy wrinkles, transverse wrinkles, symmetrical wrinkles, contraction cracks and three types of spreading cracks on their surfaces, and concentric and radial joints in the interior. The lava lobes have ropy wrinkles and contraction cracks on their surfaces. The megapillows are cylindrical with a smoothly curved upper surface and steep sides, and are characterized by distinct radial columnar joints in the interior. They are connected to pillows that propagate radially from its basal margin. The sheet lavas are tabular and have vertical columnar joints in the interior. The largest sheet lava shows a remarkable gradation from a lower 5-m-thick pillow facies to an upper massive facies. The pillows, lava lobes, megapillows and sheet lavas are inferred to have been emplaced completely below sea level but in a shallow marine environment. Their morphological features suggest that the pillows grew by episodic rupture of a near-solid crust and emergence of hot lava, whereas the lava lobes propagated by continuous stretching of the outer skin at the flow front. The megapillows and sheet lavas were master feeder channels by which molten lava was conveyed to the advancing pillows. The sheet lavas propagated by repeated processes of pillow formation and overriding by an upper massive part. Alternating pillow and massive facies commonly found in ocean-floor drill cores and exposed in cross-section in many subaqueous volcanic successions may have formed by propagation of pillows from the basal margins of advancing sheet lavas. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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