Conductivity detection for conventional and miniaturised capillary electrophoresis systems
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Guijt, RM and Evenhuis, CJ and Macka, M and Haddad, PR, Conductivity detection for conventional and miniaturised capillary electrophoresis systems, Electrophoresis, 25, (23-24) pp. 4032-4057. ISSN 0173-0835 (2004) [Refereed Article]
Since the introduction of capillary electrophoresis (CE), conductivity detection has been an attractive means of detection. No additional chemical properties are required for detection, and no loss in sensitivity is expected when miniaturising the detector to scale with narrow-bore capillaries or even to the microchip format. Integration of conductivity and CE, however, involves a challenging combination of engineering issues. In conductivity detection the resistance of the solution is most frequently measured in an alternating current (AC) circuit. The influence of capacitors both in series and in parallel with the solution resistance should be minimised during conductivity measurements. For contact conductivity measurements, the positioning and alignment of the detection electrodes is crucial. A contact conductivity detector for CE has been commercially available, but was withdrawn from the market. Microfabrication technology enables integration and precise alignment of electrodes, resulting in the popularity of conductivity detection in microfluidic devices. In contactless conductivity detection, the alignment of the electrodes with respect to the capillary is less crucial. Contactless conductivity detection (CCD) was introduced in capillary CE, and similar electronics have been applied for CCD using planar electrodes in microfluidic devices. A contactless conductivity detector for capillaries has been commercialised recently. In this review, different approaches towards conductivity detection in capillaries and chip-based CE are discussed. In contrast to previous reviews, the focus of the present review is on the technological developments and challenges in conductivity detection in CE. © 2004 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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