Experimental amoebic gill disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.: further evidence for the primary pathogenic role of Neoparamoeba sp. (Page, 1987)
Adams, MB and Nowak, BF, Experimental amoebic gill disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.: further evidence for the primary pathogenic role of Neoparamoeba sp. (Page, 1987), Journal of Fish Diseases, 27, (2) pp. 105-113. ISSN 0140-7775 (2004) [Refereed Article]
Amoebic gill disease (AGD) has been attributed to infection by Neoparamoeba sp. The causal mechanisms for AGD lesion development and the primary pathogenic role of Neoparamoeba sp. require elucidation. Three groups of Atlantic salmon were exposed to viable gill isolated amoebae, to sonicated amoebae, or to sea water containing viable amoebae without direct contact with gill epithelia. Fish were removed 8 days post-exposure and the gills assessed histologically for AGD. AGD occurred only when fish were exposed to viable trophozoites. Consequently, in an accompanying experiment, infection was evaluated histologically at 12, 24 and 48 h post-exposure in three groups of salmon, one group being mechanically injured 12 h prior to exposure. A progressive host response and significant increase (P < 0.001) in the numbers of attached amoebae was apparent over the 48-h duration in undamaged hemibranchs in both treatment groups. There were no significant differences to mucous cell populations. Attachment of Neoparamoeba sp. to damaged gill filaments was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 48 h post-exposure. These data further confirm and describe the primary pathogenic role of Neoparamoeba sp. and the early host response in AGD. Preliminary evidence suggests that lesions resulting from physical gill damage are not preferentially colonized by Neoparamoeba sp.