Trace determination of arsenic species by capillary electrophoresis with direct UV detection using sensitivity enhancement by counter- or co-electroosmotic flow stacking and a high-sensitivity cell
Sun, B and Macka, M and Haddad, PR, Trace determination of arsenic species by capillary electrophoresis with direct UV detection using sensitivity enhancement by counter- or co-electroosmotic flow stacking and a high-sensitivity cell, Electrophoresis, 24, (12-13) pp. 2045-2053. ISSN 0173-0835 (2003) [Refereed Article]
Stacking techniques used independently and also with a high-sensitivity cell (HSC) were employed to optimise sensitivity and detection limits in the direct photometric detection of the following eight arsenic species by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE): arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone), p-aminophenylarsonic acid (p-ASA), 4-nitrophenylarsonic acid (4-NPAA), and phenylarsonic acid (PAA) (target analytes). The stacking mechanisms, optimised stacking and separation conditions, and concentration sensitivity enhancement factors were discussed and compared for (i) normal stacking mode (NSM, sometimes also referred to as field-amplified stacking) in an uncoated fused-silica capillary in the counter-electroosmotic flow (EOF) mode, (ii) large-volume sample stacking (LVSS) with polarity switching, and (iii) the less often applied stacking method of co-EOF NSM stacking with EOF reversal using a poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride) (PDDAC)-coated capillary. The optimal injection volumes were 7.4, 60 and 17.2% of the total capillary volume, for the above three methods, respectively. LVSS with polarity switching gave the lowest limit of detection (LOD). The use of the HSC further reduced the LOD of each target analytes by a factor of 5-8 times. By combining LVSS and HSC, LODs of the target analytes could be reduced by a factor of 218-311, to 5.61, 9.15, 11.1, and 17.1 μg/L for As(III), DMA, MMA, and As(V), respectively. The method was demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the target analytes in tap water and lake water, with recoveries in the range of 89.4-103.3%.