In vitro survival and the effect of water chemistry and oxidative chemical treatments on isolated gill amoebae from AGD-affected Atlantic salmon
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Powell, MD and Clark, GA, In vitro survival and the effect of water chemistry and oxidative chemical treatments on isolated gill amoebae from AGD-affected Atlantic salmon, Aquaculture, 220, (1-4) pp. 135-144. ISSN 0044-8486 (2003) [Refereed Article]
Amoebic gill disease (AGD) of cultured salmonids in Tasmania is caused by the amphizoic parasitic amoeba Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis. The freshwater tolerance of amoebae isolated from the gills of AGD-affected salmon (predominantly N. pemaquidensis) was tested in vitro using a trypan blue exclusion assay. Amoebae exposed to water containing high concentrations of Ca2+ or Mg2+ (200 mg l-1) showed high levels of survival up to 3 h of exposure. Exposure to water containing elevated Na+, choline chloride or water at different pH all had no significant survival of amoebae. Exposure of amoebae to different concentrations of chlorine dioxide, chloramine-T or hydrogen peroxide in artificially hard water demonstrated that chloramine-T and hydrogen peroxide were the most efficacious at killing amoebae in vitro. This work suggests that the hardness of freshwater may be an important factor for the survival of marine amoebae (predominantly N. pemaquidensis) on the gills of AGD-affected salmon and have significant implications with regard to the efficacy of freshwater bathing practices for the control of AGD on farms. Additionally, chloramine-T and hydrogen peroxide appear to be efficacious at killing marine gill amoebae in vitro and may be useful for the control of AGD in farmed Atlantic salmon. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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