Modelling and optimization of the electrokinetic chromatographic separation of mixtures of organic anions and cations using poly(diallydimethyl-ammonium chloride) and hexanesulfonate as mixed pseudostationary phases
Zakaria, P and Macka, M and Fritz, J and Haddad, PR, Modelling and optimization of the electrokinetic chromatographic separation of mixtures of organic anions and cations using poly(diallydimethyl-ammonium chloride) and hexanesulfonate as mixed pseudostationary phases, Electrophoresis, 23, (17) pp. 2821-2832. ISSN 0173-0835 (2002) [Refereed Article]
The separation of a series of aromatic carboxylic acids, sulfonates and opiates using electrokinetic chromatography employing a mixture of the soluble cationic polymer poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride) (PDDAC) and the amphiphilic anion hexanesulfonate as pseudostationary phases is described. In this system, the PDDAC pseudostationary phase interacts with the anionic analytes, whereas the hexanesulfonate pseudostationary phase interacts with the cationic analytes. A migration model has been derived which takes into account the ion-exchange (IE) interactions between the anions and the cationic PDDAC as well as the ion-pair (IP) interactions between the opiates and the hexanesulfonate. A further interaction between the combined PDDAC-hexanesulfonate complex and the more hydrophobic analytes is also evident and is accounted for in the model. Constants obtained by applying the model agreed well with the expected trends in IE affinities of the anions for PDDAC and also corresponded with the hydrophobic natures of the analytes. Optimization of the PDDAC and hexanesulfonate concentrations was performed using the normalized resolution product and minimum resolution product criteria. The minimum resolution product criterion proved to be most successful. An advantage of the described system is the improvement in peak shapes obtained after addition of hexanesulfonate to the electrolyte, resulting in increased plate numbers and better resolution. The system was very robust with mobilities varying by less than 2% over a period of days and on using different capillaries.