Fluid bubbles in melt inclusions and pillow-rim glasses: high-temperature precursors to hydrothermal fluids?
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Kamenetsky, VS and Davidson, P and Mernagh, TP and Crawford, AJ and Gemmell, JB and Portnyagin, MV and Shinjo, R, Fluid bubbles in melt inclusions and pillow-rim glasses: high-temperature precursors to hydrothermal fluids?, Chemical Geology, 183, (3-4) pp. 349-364. ISSN 0009-2541 (2002) [Refereed Article]
Hypotheses for the formation of many types of hydrothermal ore deposits often involve the direct contribution of magma-related fluids (e.g., Cu-Mo-Au porphyries) or their superimposition on barren hydrothermal cells (e.g., volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits). However, the chemical and phase compositions of such fluids remain largely unknown. We report preliminary results of a comprehensive study of fluid bubbles trapped inside glassy melt inclusions in primitive olivine phenocrysts and pillow-rim glasses from basaltic magmas from different tectonic environments, including mid-ocean ridges (Macquarie Island, SW Pacific and Mid-Atlantic Ridge 43°N Fracture Zone), ocean islands (Hawaii) and a variety of modern and ancient backarc-island arc settings (eastern Manus Basin, Okinawa and Vanuatu Troughs, Troodos, New Caledonia and Hunter Ridge-Hunter Fracture Zone). Fluid bubbles from all localities, studied using electron microscopy with EDS and laser Raman spectroscopy, are composed of CO 2-(± H 2O ± sulfur)-bearing vapor and contain significant amounts of amorphous (Na-K-Ca-Fe alumino-silicates and dissorded carbon) and crystalline phases. The crystals are represented mainly by carbonates (magnesite, calcite, ankerite, dolomite, siderite, nahcolite and rhodochrosite), sulfates (anhydrite, gypsum, barite and anglesite), and sulfides (pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and marcasite), though other minerals (brukite, apatite, halite, clinoenstatite, kalsilite, nepheline, amphibole and mica) may occur as well. We argue that chemical components (e.g., C, H, S, Cl, Si, Al, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ca, Mg, Ba, Pb and Cu) that later formed precipitates in fluid bubbles were originally dissolved in the magmatic fluid, and were not supplied by host glasses or phenocrysts after entrapment. Magma-related fluid rich in dissolved metals and other non-volatile elements may be a potential precursor to ore-forming solutions. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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