Effects of glycosylated recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor after high-dose cytarabine-based induction chemotherapy for adult acute myeloid leukaemia
Bradstock, K and Matthews, J and Young, G and Lowenthal, RM and Baxter, H and Arthur, C and Bashford, J and Brighton, T and Cannell, P and Dunlop, L and Durrant, S and Enno, A and Eliadis, P and Gill, D and Gillett, A and Gottlieb, D and Januszewicz, H and Joshua, D and Leahy, M and Schwarer, A and Taylor, K, Effects of glycosylated recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor after high-dose cytarabine-based induction chemotherapy for adult acute myeloid leukaemia, Leukemia, 15, (9) pp. 1331-1338. ISSN 0887-6924 (2001) [Refereed Article]
The Australian Leukaemia Study Group (ALSG) investigated whether G-CSF would accelerate haemopoietic recovery after induction treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) intensified with high-dose cytarabine, and therefore improve response rates and survival. Patients were randomised to receive lenograstim (glycosylated recombinant human G-CSF) 5 μg per kg body weight subcutaneously daily from day 8 after starting chemotherapy, or no cytokine, following chemotherapy with cytarabine 3 g/m 2 every 12 h on days 1, 3, 5, and 7, together with idarubicin 9 or 12 mg/m 2 on days 1, 2, and 3, plus etoposide 75 mg/m 2 on days 1 to 7 inclusive. Patients had untreated AML, and were aged 16 to 60 years. Overall, 54 evaluable patients were randomised to receive lenograstim and 58 to no cytokine. Patients in the lenograstim arm had a significantly shorter duration of neutropenia <0.5 × 10 9/l compared to patients in the no cytokine arm (median 18 vs 22 days; P = 0.0005), and also shorter duration of total leucopenia <1.0 × 10 9/l (17 vs 19 days; P = 0.0002), as well as a reduction in duration of treatment with therapeutic intravenous antibiotics (20 vs 24 days; P = 0.015) and a trend to reduced number of days with fever >38.0°C (9 vs 12 days; P = 0.18). There were no differences between the two groups in platelet recovery, red cell or platelet transfusions, or non-haematological toxicities. For patients achieving CR after their first induction course, a reduction in the time to the start of the next course of therapy was observed in the lenograstim arm, from a median of 40.5 days to a median of 36 days (P = 0.082). The overall complete response rates to chemotherapy were similar, 81% in the lenograstim arm vs 75% for the no cytokine arm (P = 0.5), and there was no significant difference in the survival durations. We conclude that the granulopoietic stimulating effect of G-CSF is observed after induction therapy for AML intensified by high-dose cytarabine, resulting in an improvement in a number of clinically important parameters with no major adverse effects.