Effects of dietary protein source on growth, immune function, blood chemistry and disease resistance of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr
Bransden, MP and Carter, CG and Nowak, BF, Effects of dietary protein source on growth, immune function, blood chemistry and disease resistance of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr, Animal Science, 73 pp. 105-113. ISSN 1357-7298 (2001) [Refereed Article]
Many studies with fin fish have demonstrated the potential to use alternative dietary protein sources to fish meal based on growth responses, although these trials mostly neglect to determine if such protein sources affect immune function. This study investigated the effect of fish meal replacement with dehulled lupin meal (LPN) or hydrolysed poultry feather meal (FTH). Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr were supplied isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets with 40% of the dietary protein provided by LPN or FTH, or 400 g/kg of the dietary protein provided equally by LPN and FTH (MIX). A diet mainly containing fish-meal protein acted as a control (CON). Growth, immune function, blood chemistry and disease resistance were assessed after 56 days. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in weight gain were detected between Atlantic salmon given the CON and FTH diets, whilst those salmon given LPN and MIX did not differ from any other. Productive protein values were significantly lower (P < 0.01) for salmon on FTH compared with those on CON and MIX. Immune function (as assessed by lysozyme, antiprotease, neutrophil oxygen radical production and plasma total immunoglobulin) and blood chemistry (as assessed by plasma total protein and glucose) were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by any diet. Mortality rates of Atlantic salmon challenged with Vibrio anguillarum were not influenced by diet. These data suggest Atlantic salmon could be supplied diets with the fish meal component reduced to supply approximately 600 g/kg of the total protein, with the remaining 400 g/kg supplied by dehulled lupin meal or a combined dehulled lupin and hydrolysed poultry feather meal without any adverse effects on growth, immune function or blood chemistry.