Spatial variations of incoming longwave radiation in Göteborg, Sweden
Nunez, M and Eliasson, I and Lindgren, J, Spatial variations of incoming longwave radiation in Goteborg, Sweden, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 67, (3-4, 2000) pp. 181-192. ISSN 0177-798X (2000) [Refereed Article]
A measurement programme was conducted in GĂ¶teborg Sweden, to examine the spatial variations of incoming longwave irradiance on calm, cloudless nights. Both regional and local spatial variations were examined. Incoming longwave irradiance data was obtained from mobile car transects, and at a fixed site on a building roof at the city centre. Ancillary data included sky view factor at various transect locations, and balloon soundings of air temperature and humidity on one night. Measurements revealed that on average, incoming long- wave irradiance at the fixed urban site was 11 W m-2 higher than at the rural station, with varying differences for intervening sites. Bulk apparent sky emissivity was higher at the most rural station compared to the fixed urban site, by about 0.03 on average. Nighttime balloon measurements and a sensitivity analysis with a radiative transfer model argue that the bulk apparent sky emissivity differences stem mainly from the temperature structure of the lower boundary layer which changes markedly from rural to urban areas. A good relationship was found between sky view factor and incoming longwave irradiance for a range of urban and park locations. The relationship applies to both individual nights and average data. Using a simple obstruction model, canyon wall temperatures are derived, and the relationship between sky view factor and wall temperature is examined.