The combined effect of feeding time and ration on growth performance and nitrogen metabolism of greenback flounder
Verbeeten, BE and Carter, CG and Purser, GJ, The combined effect of feeding time and ration on growth performance and nitrogen metabolism of greenback flounder, Journal of Fish Biology, 55, (6) pp. 1328-1343. ISSN 0022-1112 (1999) [Refereed Article]
Greenback flounder Rhombosolea tapirina (c. 2 g) fed to satiation had significantly (P<0·01) higher feed consumption in the evening than in the morning whereas there was no difference between feeding times for flounder fed restricted rations (1 or 2% body weight per day) because they consumed all of the ration. Differences in growth performance were due to feeding time and ration. Carcass moisture, lipid and energy content were significantly (P<0·001) different between rations; length gain was significantly affected by feeding time (P<0·05) and ration (P<0·001); weight gain showed a significant (P<0·001) interaction between feeding time and ration. The relationship between feed consumption and specific growth rate showed that the exponential gradient was significantly higher (P<0·01) for the evening fed fish and indicated feed efficiency for evening fed fish increased as feed consumption increased. Urea excretion increased from 12-20 to 58-63% of total nitrogen excretion at the 1 and 3% rations, respectively. Ammonia and urea excretion were significantly affected by ration (P<0·001) and feeding time (P<0·05). Fish fed the 2% ration in the evening had higher growth efficiency and significantly (P<0·01) lower rates of urea excretion than fish fed 2 or 3% ration in the morning. It is suggested that the higher energetic costs associated with differences in ammonia and urea excretion contributed to differences in growth efficiency.