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Comparative analysis of Arsenic transport and tolerance mechanisms: evolution from Prokaryote to higher plants


Zhang, J and Liu, J and Zheng, F and Yu, M and Shabala, S and Song, WY, Comparative analysis of Arsenic transport and tolerance mechanisms: evolution from Prokaryote to higher plants, Cells, 11, (17) Article 2741. ISSN 2073-4409 (2022) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright Statement

2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License, ( which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly sited.

DOI: doi:10.3390/cells11172741


Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid for all living organisms and can cause serious harm to humans. Arsenic is also toxic to plants. To alleviate As toxicity, all living organisms (from prokaryotes to higher plants) have evolved comprehensive mechanisms to reduce cytosolic As concentration through the set of As transporters localized at the plasma and tonoplast membranes, which operate either in arsenite As(III) extrusion out of cells (via ArsB, ACR3, and aquaporins) or by sequestering arsenic into vacuoles (by ABC transporters). In addition, a special arsenate resistance mechanism found in some bacterial systems has evolved in an As hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata, which involves transforming arsenate As(V) to an As(V) phosphoglycerate derivative by a glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and transporting this complex by an efflux transporter. In the present review, we summarize the evolution of these arsenic resistance mechanisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes and discuss future approaches that could be utilized to better understand and improve As resistance mechanisms in plants.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:arsenic; evolution; tolerance
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Plant biology
Research Field:Plant physiology
Objective Division:Plant Production and Plant Primary Products
Objective Group:Other plant production and plant primary products
Objective Field:Other plant production and plant primary products not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Shabala, S (Professor Sergey Shabala)
ID Code:155168
Year Published:2022
Web of Science® Times Cited:3
Deposited By:Agriculture and Food Systems
Deposited On:2023-01-31
Last Modified:2023-02-08
Downloads:4 View Download Statistics

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