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Assessment of knowledge attitude and practices of the hospital and community pharmacists in Saudi Arabia (Jeddah) towards inappropriate medication use in older adults


Alfahmi, AA and Curtain, CM and Salahudeen, MS, Assessment of knowledge attitude and practices of the hospital and community pharmacists in Saudi Arabia (Jeddah) towards inappropriate medication use in older adults, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20, (2) pp. 1-13. ISSN 1660-4601 (2023) [Refereed Article]

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DOI: doi:10.3390/ijerph20021635


In Saudi Arabia, the older adult population is growing and is projected to increase three-fold by 2030. Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are harmful to older adults’ and have a direct impact on clinical, health and economic outcomes. Pharmacists have a vital role in medication tailoring for older adults as multidisciplinary team members. However, there is also a paucity of research regarding pharmacists’ participation in detecting and avoiding PIMs use among older adults in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, practices, and attitude of pharmacists from seven hospitals and ten community pharmacies in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The survey comprised three sections; (i) identifying participants’ general characteristics, (ii) assessing their knowledge of PIMs use in older adults and (iii) examining the pharmacist’s attitude towards the procedures followed in dispensing for older adults. Inferential and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the survey data. A total of 157 community and hospital pharmacists participated in this study. Most of them dispensed medication weekly to older adults (85.4%), and 43.3% had relevant work experience of six to ten years. Though 44.6% of the participants were aware of PIMs that older adults should avoid, only 10.8% claimed adequate knowledge about PIMs. From the given three clinical case scenarios, a minority of pharmacists (21.7%) chose the correct answers, with a mean score of 2.38 ± 2.91 (95% CI 2.35–3.15). Participants who claimed to have knowledge of PIMs had a significantly higher mean score than those who did not, 4.59 ± 2.81 25 (95% CI 2.35–2.61). A minority of the pharmacists (14.7%) used screening tools such as STOPP, Beers criteria, or Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) to detect PIMs in older adults. No statistically significant differences were detected when comparing the levels of knowledge of pharmacists with 1 to 5 years of practice to pharmacists with 6 to 15 and more years of experience (p = 0.431). Pharmacists’ knowledge, attitude and practices toward PIMs use in older adults in Saudi Arabia should be improved. The application of PIMs detection tools such as STOPP/START or Beers criteria currently has no place in day-to-day pharmacists’ roles in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, concerned stakeholders should develop educational programs to improve pharmacists’ knowledge of PIMs and promote the effective use of PIM screening tools such as Beers and STOPP criteria in their practice.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:potentially inappropriate medication, PIMs, Beers criteria, older adults, STOPP/START, adverse drug reactions, pharmacists
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Pharmacology and pharmaceutical sciences
Research Field:Clinical pharmacy and pharmacy practice
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Evaluation of health and support services
Objective Field:Evaluation of health outcomes
UTAS Author:Alfahmi, AA (Mr Adel Alfahmi)
UTAS Author:Curtain, CM (Mr Colin Curtain)
UTAS Author:Salahudeen, MS (Dr Mohammed Salahudeen)
ID Code:154872
Year Published:2023
Deposited By:Pharmacy
Deposited On:2023-01-17
Last Modified:2023-01-17

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